I graduated with a first class honours degree in Mathematics from Liverpool University in 1991.I then went on to do a PhD jointly supervised by Roger Bowers in the Mathematics and Mike Begon in the Ecology departments funded by a Wellcome Trust prize studentship. I spent a year in Oxford Zoology department modelling the dynamics and control of Lymphatic filariasis. I started work as a lecturer in the Mathematics and Statistics group in Stirling in 1996 and went half time in 2001. I was promoted to Senior lecturer in 2003 and to Reader in 2010. In January 2013 I started a new role as Professor of Aquatic Food security. We set up the Centre for Aquatic Food Security which is a virtual interdisciplinary centre which looks at the role of Seafood in the wider food security picture. More recently I have led the University Research Programme on Global Food Security which brings together colleagues from across the University who are applying their research to problems in food security. In April 2019 I took on the role of Institutional Dean of Research Engagement and Performance.
In my Institutional Dean role I am particularly keen to ensure that we provide a positive and collaborative research environment which helps all people to reach their potential.
Vice president of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society Edinburgh Mathematical Society
PhD University of Liverpool
Degree in Mathematics University of Liverpool
British Ecological Society The British Ecological Society
Edinburgh Mathematical Society Edinburgh Mathematical Society
My background is in mathematical modelling of infectious disease dynamics and control. I have worked extensively on models of tick borne pathogens, specifically Louping ill virus. I am interested in both developing new modelling techniques and solving real life problems. Much of my past work has been on wildlife pathogens and aquatic parasites in particular. More recently I have turned my focus to Food security and am really interested in how we can understand the complex interactions which make up our food system. In particular non- linearities in the food system and I currently have a Levehulme Fellowship to work on this. I am also involved in a Belmont Forum funded proposal looking at biological control of snails which are vectors of schistosomiasis using prawns which can also be used as a food source . I have been developing interdisciplinary projects to help us tackle the transformation that the food system will require in order to ensure a equitable, food secure world.
Keywords: Food security. Mathematical modelling of infectious disease dynamics and control. Specific interests in emerging diseases and food security.
Potential PhD students who would like to come and work with me are encouraged to get in touch in order to discuss potential projects. I am interested in anything in the broad area of mathematical modelling in food security. Some specific examples of potential projects include:
Applying the theory of marginal gains to healthy eating: Given the current predictions about future population growth and food production capacity it is clear that we, in the developed world, cannot continue to eat the same diets as we currently do. These diets are both unhealthy and environmentally demanding. This project will have dietary choices at its core and will take a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to investigating sustainable nutrition. We will develop and test a novel individual and distribution based mathematical model of human health metrics and associated diets. It will provide quantifiable evidence which links food choices, production systems, and health and environmental outcomes. The model will identify the dietary changes which lead to improved outcomes for health and sustainability. We will develop a practical, transparent and flexible tool which allows all stakeholders to investigate the range of choices available to them, and the consequences in terms of health, the economy, and sustainability.
Control of Armyworms on African crops:The Armyworm is an african moth capable of destroying entire crops in a matter of weeks. They are currently being controlled by chemicals but there are possible methods of biological control, including using a virus. In this project we would build a seasonal, spatial mathematical model of armyworms (both Fall armyworms and African Armyworms) in order to test different control strategies in order to find an integrated pest management strategy which will minimise the damage done by these pests.
Nonlinearities in the food system: How can we use mathematical approaches to help us to understand tipping points, feedback loops and trade offs in different aspects of the food system. Can we then use those non linearities to our advantage? Are there real world examples where a small change in behaviour will produce a greater than expected benefit. Alternatively how do we ensure we avoid tipping points - can we tell how close to them we are?
Stetkiewicz S, Norman RA, Allison EH, Coffee P, Crumlish M, Eltholth M, Falconer L, Kaminski AM, Leschen W, McAdam B, Newton R, Pounds A, Schapper A, Young JA & Little DC (2022) Seafood in Food Security: A Call for Bridging the Terrestrial-Aquatic Divide. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5, Art. No.: 703152. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2021.703152
Norman R (2022) Can contributions to a positive research culture be measured?. Times Higher Education Blog [Blog Post] 23.04.2022. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/can-contributions-positive-research-culture-be-measured
Tillmann U, Norman R, Richardson S & Etheridge A (2022) Mathematics needs to find the formula for gender equality. Times Higher Education Blog [Blog Post] 08.03.2022. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/mathematics-needs-find-formula-gender-equality
Ozretich RW, Wood CL, Allan F, Koumi AR, Norman R, Brierley AS, De Leo GA & Little DC (2022) The Potential for Aquaculture to Reduce Poverty and Control Schistosomiasis in Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) during an Era of Climate Change: A Systematic Review. Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture. https://doi.org/10.1080/23308249.2022.2039096
Reay D, Warnatzsch EA, Craig E, Dawson L, George S, Norman R & Ritchie P (2020) From Farm to Fork: growing a Scottish Food System that doesn't cost the Planet. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4, Art. No.: 72. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2020.00072
Norman R, Crumlish M & Stetkiewicz S (2019) The importance of fisheries and aquaculture production for nutrition and food security. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Epizooties, 38 (2), pp. 395-407. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.38.2.2994
Jones AE, Munro LA, Green DM, Morgan KL, Murray AG, Norman R, Salama NKG, Ryder D, Taylor NGH, Thrush MA, Wallace IS & Sharkey KJ (2019) The Contact Structure of Great Britain's Salmon and Trout Aquaculture Industry. Epidemics, 28, Art. No.: 100342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2019.05.001
Wilson A, Morgan E, Booth M, Norman R, Perkins S, Hauffe H, Mideo N, Antonovics J, McCallum H & Fenton A (2017) What is a vector?. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences, 372 (1719), Art. No.: 20160085. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0085
Benton T, Fairweather D, Graves A, Harris J, Jones A, Lenton T, Norman R, O'Riordan T, Pope E & Tiffin R (2017) Environmental tipping points and food system dynamics: Main report. Global Food Security. http://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/assets/pdfs/environmental-tipping-points-report.pdf
Norman R (2017) Food security looks very different depending on where you are sitting. The Conversation. 22.01.2017. https://theconversation.com/food-security-looks-very-different-depending-on-where-you-are-sitting-68396
Denholm SJ, Hoyle A, Shinn A, Paladini G, Taylor NGH & Norman R (2016) Predicting the potential for natural recovery of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations following the introduction of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea). PLoS ONE, 11 (12), Art. No.: e0169168. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169168
Denholm SJ, Norman R, Hoyle A, Shinn A & Taylor NGH (2013) Reproductive Trade-Offs May Moderate the Impact of Gyrodactylus salaris in Warmer Climates. PLoS ONE, 8 (10), Art. No.: e78909. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078909
Roy PK, Chowdhury S, Chatterjee AN, Chattopadhyay J & Norman R (2013) A mathematical model on CTL mediated control of hiv infection in a long-term drug therapy. Journal of Biological Systems, 21 (3), Art. No.: 1350019. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218339013500198
Porter R, Norman R & Gilbert L (2013) A model to test how ticks and louping ill virus can be controlled by treating red grouse with acaricide. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 27 (3), pp. 237-246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2012.01047.x
McCaig C, Fenton A, Graham A, Shankland C & Norman R (2013) Using process algebra to develop predator-prey models of within-host parasite dynamics. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 329, pp. 74-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.03.001
Lintott R, Norman R & Hoyle A (2013) The impact of increased dispersal in response to disease control in patchy environments. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 323, pp. 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.01.027
Porter R, Norman R & Gilbert L (2013) An alternative to killing? Treatment of reservoir hosts to control a vector and pathogen in a susceptible species. Parasitology, 140 (2), pp. 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182012001400
Benkirane S, Norman R, Scott E & Shankland C (2012) Measles epidemics and PEPA: An exploration of historic disease dynamics using process algebra. In: Giannakopoulou D & Mery D (eds.) FM 2012: Formal Methods: 18th International Symposium, Paris, France, August 27-31, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7436. FM 2012: Formal Methods 18th International Symposium, Paris, France, 27.08.2012-31.08.2012. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 101-115. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-32759-9_11; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32759-9_11
McPherson N, Norman R, Hoyle A, Bron J & Taylor NGH (2012) Stocking methods and parasite-induced reductions in capture: Modelling Argulus foliaceus in trout fisheries. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 312, pp. 22-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.07.017
Porter R, Norman R & Gilbert L (2011) Controlling tick-borne diseases through domestic animal management: a theoretical approach. Theoretical Ecology, 4 (3), pp. 321-339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12080-010-0080-2
Taylor NGH, Norman R, Way K & Peeler EJ (2011) Modelling the koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic highlights the importance of active surveillance within a national control policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48 (2), pp. 348-355. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01926.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01926.x
McCaig C, Norman R & Shankland C (2011) From Individuals to Populations: a mean field semantics for process algebra. Theoretical Computer Science, 412 (17), pp. 1557-1580. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043975; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2010.09.024
McCaig C, Begon M, Norman R & Shankland C (2011) A rigorous approach to investigating common assumptions about disease transmission: Process algebra as an emerging modelling methodology for epidemiology. Theory in Biosciences, 130 (1), pp. 19-29. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1431-7613/; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12064-010-0106-8
Scott E, Mahajan SM, Brand-Spencer T, Allen JE, Norman R, Graham AL & Shankland C (2010) Modelling Immunological Systems using PEPA: a preliminary report. 9th Workshop on Process Algebra and Stochastically Timed Activities (PASTA 2010), London, UK, 06.09.2010-07.09.2010. http://aesop.doc.ic.ac.uk/conferences/pasta/2010
Benkirane S, Hillston J, McCaig C, Norman R & Shankland C (2009) Improved Continuous Approximation of PEPA Models through Epidemiological Examples. From Biology To Concurrency and back (FBTC 2008), A Satellite Workshop of ICALP 2008, 12.07.2008-12.07.2008. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 229 (1), pp. 59-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2009.02.005
Benkirane S, Shankland C, Norman R & McCaig C (2009) Modelling the bubonic plague in a prairie dog burrow: a work in progress. In: Clark A & Guerriero M (eds.) 8th Workshop on Process Algebra and Stochastically Timed Activities: PASTA 2009. PASTA 2009 - 8th Workshop on Process Algebra and Stochastically Timed Activities, Edinburgh, UK, 26.08.2009-27.08.2009. Edinburgh, UK: University of Edinburgh, pp. 145-152. http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~sbk/PASTA2009.pdf
McCaig C, Begon M, Shankland C & Norman R (2009) From individual behaviour to population dynamics: changing scale in models of superspreaders. 8th Workshop on Process Algebra and Stochastically Timed Activities (PASTA 2009): Edinburgh, UK, Edinburgh, 26.08.2009-26.08.2009.
McCaig C, Norman R & Shankland C (2009) From Individuals to Populations: A Symbolic Process Algebra Approach to Epidemiology. Mathematics in Computer Science, 2 (3), pp. 535-556. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1661-8270/; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11786-008-0066-2
McCaig C, Norman R & Shankland C (2008) Process Algebra Models of Population Dynamics. In: Horimoto K, Regensburger G, Rosenkranz M & Yoshida H (eds.) Algebraic Biology. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5147. Algebraic Biology 2008, Castle of Hagenberg, Austria, 31.07.2008-02.08.2008. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 139-155. http://www.springerlink.com/content/y26143833jl82307/?MUD=MP; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85101-1
McCaig C, Norman R & Shankland C (2008) Deriving Mean Field Equations from Large Process Algebra Models. Technical Report CSM, 175. Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling.
Lello J, Norman R, Boag B, Hudson PJ & Fenton A (2008) Pathogen Interactions, Population Cycles, and Phase Shifts. American Naturalist, 171 (2), pp. 176-182. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/525257; https://doi.org/10.1086/525257
Greenman J & Norman R (2007) Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 247 (3), pp. 492-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.03.031
Ireland JM, Mestel BD & Norman R (2007) The effect of seasonal host birth rates on disease persistence. Mathematical Biosciences, 206 (1), pp. 31-45. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00255564; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2006.08.028
Norman R & Bowers R (2007) A Host-Host-Pathogen Model with Vaccination and its Application to Target and Reservoir Hosts. Mathematical Population Studies, 14 (1), pp. 31-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/08898480601090667
Mathews F, Macdonald D, Taylor GM, Gelling M, Norman R, Honess P, Foster R, Gower CM, Varley S, Harris A, Palmer S, Hewinson G & Webster JP (2006) Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 273 (1584), pp. 357-365. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1584/357; https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3298
Ireland JM, Norman R & Greenman J (2004) The effect of seasonal host birth rates on population dynamics: the importance of resonance. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 231 (2), pp. 229-238. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519304002905; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.06.017
Laurenson MK, Norman R, Gilbert L, Reid HW & Hudson PJ (2004) Mountain hares, louping-ill, red grouse and harvesting: complex interactions but few data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73 (4), pp. 811-813. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01926.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-8790.2004.00851.x
Norman R, Ross D, Laurenson MK & Hudson PJ (2004) The role of non-viraemic transmission on the persistence and dynamics of a tick borne virus - Louping ill in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus). Journal of Mathematical Biology, 48 (2), pp. 119-134. http://www.springerlink.com/content/jqf37qrp4x7c12hv/; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00285-002-0183-5
Norman R & Shankland C (2003) Developing the use of process algebra in the derivation and analysis of mathematical models of infectious disease. In: Moreno-Díaz R & Pichler F (eds.) Computer Aided Systems Theory - EUROCAST 2003
9th International Workshop on Computer Aided Systems Theory Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 24-28, 2003 Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2809. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 404-414. http://www.springerlink.com/content/qe3bvr3gndrv4etd/; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45210-2_37
Norman R, Fenton A, Fairbairn JP & Hudson PJ (2003) Mathematical Models of Insect Pest Control. In: Upadhyay R (ed.) Advances in Microbial Control of Insect Pests. New York: Springer, pp. 313-322. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4437-8_16
Boots M, Greenman J, Ross D, Norman R, Hails RS & Sait S (2003) The population dynamical implications of covert infections in host-microparasite interactions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72 (6), pp. 1064-1072. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00777.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00777.x
Rosa R, Pugliese A, Norman R & Hudson PJ (2003) Thresholds for disease persistence in models for tick-borne infections including non-viraemic transmission, extended feeding and tick aggregation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 224 (3), pp. 359-376. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519303001735; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193%2803%2900173-5
Laurenson MK, Norman R, Gilbert L, Reid HW & Hudson PJ (2003) Identifying disease reservoirs in complex systems: mountain hares as reservoirs of ticks and louping-ill virus, pathogens of red grouse. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72 (1), pp. 177-185. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00688.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00688.x
White P, Norman R & Hudson PJ (2002) Epidemiological consequences of a pathogen having both virulent and avirulent modes of transmission: the case of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. Epidemiology and Infection, 129 (3), pp. 665-677. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=137505; https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026880200777X
Tucker CS, Norman R, Shinn A, Bron J, Sommerville C & Wootten R (2002) A single cohort time delay model of the life-cycle of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fish Pathology, 37 (3), pp. 107-118. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsfp1966/37/3/37_3_107/_article; https://doi.org/10.3147/jsfp.37.107
Fenton A, Fairbairn JP, Norman R & Hudson PJ (2002) Parasite transmission: reconciling theory and reality. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71 (5), pp. 893-905. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00656.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00656.x
Fenton A, Gwynn R, Gupta A, Norman R, Fairbairn JP & Hudson PJ (2002) Optimal application strategies for entomopathogenic nematodes: integrating theoretical and empirical approaches. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39 (3), pp. 481-492. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00727.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00727.x
Randolph SE, Chemini C, Furlanello C, Genchi C, Hails RS, Hudson PJ, Jones LD, Medley GF, Norman R, Rizzoli A, Smith GD & Woolhouse MEJ (2002) The ecology of tick-borne infections in wildlife reservoirs. In: Hudson P, Rizzoli A, Grenfell B, Heesterbeek H & Dobson A (eds.) The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 119-138. http://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-ecology-of-wildlife-diseases-9780198506195?cc=gb〈=en&
Grenfell BT, Amos W, Arneberg P, Bjornstad ON, Greenman J, Harwood J, Lanfranchi P, McLean AR, Norman R, Read AF & Skorping A (2002) Visions for future research in wildlife epidemiology. In: Hudson P, Rizzoli A, Grenfell B, Heesterbeek H & Dobson A (eds.) The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 151-164. http://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-ecology-of-wildlife-diseases-9780198506195?cc=gb〈=en&tab=toc
Gilbert L, Norman R, Laurenson MK, Reid HW & Hudson PJ (2001) Disease persistence and apparent competition in a three-host community: an empirical and analytical study of large-scale, wild populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70 (6), pp. 1053-1061. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00558.x/abstract;jsessionid=D7643F6FCB4FBC22CA5796E9330A4D76.d01t02?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8790.2001.00558.x
Fenton A, Norman R, Fairbairn JP & Hudson PJ (2001) Evaluating the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of crop pests: A nonequilibrium approach. American Naturalist, 158 (4), pp. 408-425. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/321993; https://doi.org/10.1086/321993
White P, Norman R, Trout RC, Gould E & Hudson PJ (2001) The emergence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus: will a non-pathogenic strain protect the UK?. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences, 356 (1411), pp. 1087-1095. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/356/1411/1087; https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2001.0897
Fairbairn JP, Fenton A, Norman R & Hudson PJ (2000) Re-assessing the infection strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditidae; Steinernematidae). Parasitology, 121, pp. 211-216. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182099006216
Norman R, Chan M, Srividya A, Pani SP, Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Michael E, Das PK & Bundy DAP (2000) EPIFIL: The development of an age-structured model for describing the transmission dynamics and control of lymphatic filariasis. Epidemiology and Infection, 124 (3), pp. 529-541. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=54243; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268899003702
Boots M & Norman R (2000) Sublethal infection and the population dynamics of host-microparasite interactions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69 (3), pp. 517-524. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2000.00417.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2000.00417.x
Fenton A, Norman R, Fairbairn JP & Hudson PJ (2000) Modelling the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in the regulation of invertebrate pests in glasshouse crops. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37 (2), pp. 309-320. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00494.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+on+9+June+from+10%3A00-12%3A00+BST+%2805%3A00-07%3A00+EDT%29+for+essential+maintenance; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00494.x
Fenton A, Fairbairn JP, Norman R & Hudson PJ (1999) Modelling entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control. In: Thomas M & Kedwards T (eds.) Challenges in Applied population biology. Aspects of Applied Biology, 53. Warwick: Association of Applied Biologists, pp. 157-163.
Fairbairn JP, Fenton A, Norman R & Hudson PJ (1999) The invasion efficiency of the entomopathogenic nematode Steindernema feltiae (Rhabditidae; Steinernematidae). In: Thomas M & Kedwards T (eds.) Challenges in Applied population biology. Aspects of Applied Biology, 53. Warwick: Association of Applied Biologists, pp. 83-88.
Norman R, Bowers R, Begon M & Hudson PJ (1999) Persistence of tick-borne virus in the presence of multiple host species: Tick reservoirs and parasite mediated competition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 200 (1), pp. 111-118. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519399909827; https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.1999.0982
Chan M, Srividya A, Norman R, Pani SP, Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Michael E, Das PK & Bundy DAP (1998) Epifil: a dynamic model of infection and disease in lymphatic filariasis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 59 (4), pp. 606-614. http://www.ajtmh.org/content/59/4/606.full.pdf+html
Hudson PJ, Gould E, Laurenson MK, Gaunt MW, Reid HW, Jones LD, Norman R, MacGuire K & Newborn D (1997) The epidemiology of louping-ill, a tick borne infection of red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Parassitologia, 39 (4), pp. 319-323.
Hudson PJ & Norman R (1995) The role of entomopathogenic nematodes in regulating the abundance of pest
species: a generalised model. In: Griffin C, Gwynn R & Masson J (eds.) Ecology and Transmission Strategies of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Report). COST Biotechnology, 819. Luxembourg: European Commission, pp. 52-57. http://www.cost.eu/media/publications/95-11-Ecology-and-Transmission-Strategies-of-Entomopathogenic-Nematodes
Norman R, Begon M & Bowers R (1995) Ecological models of microparasitic diseases: The importance of recovery and immunity. Journal of Biological Systems, 3 (3), pp. 813-820. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218339095000745
Hudson PJ, Norman R, Laurenson MK, Newborn D, Gaunt MW, Jones LD, Reid HW, Gould E, Bowers R & Dobson A (1995) Persistence and transmission of tick-borne viruses: Ixodes ricinus and louping-ill virus in red grouse populations. Parasitology, 111 (Supplement S1), pp. S49-S58. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=4217524; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182000075818
Norman R, Begon M & Bowers R (1994) The population dynamics of microparasites and vertebrate hosts: the importance of immunity and recovery. Theoretical Population Biology, 46 (1), pp. 96-119. https://doi.org/10.1006/tpbi.1994.1021