I graduated in 1994 with a First Class Honours degree in Public Administration and was also awarded a Certificate in Public Service Practice following a year long placement as a civil service Fast Stream Administrative Trainee, at the Information Technology Office of the Inland Revenue. Between 1994 and 2000 I was a researcher based at the Centre for the Study of Telematics and Governance (CSTAG), Caledonian Business School, undertaking research into new innovative electronic public services.In 2000 I was appointed as a Lecturer in Public Management at the University of Stirling and in 2007 I was promoted to Senior Lecturer. I am the Director of the Public Service Management MBA and BA (Hons) Public Management & Administration programmes and contribute to a range of programmes and modules at the University. My research interests focus on issues to do with governing in the information age (e-government) and I am a recognised expert on Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance cameras and Interactive Digital Television (iDTV). I am a member of the Public Sector Management Research Group and a number of academic and professional networks, including the European Group of Public Administration and the International Research Society for Public Management. Press Coverage of Research Gordon, T. ‘£375,000 TV Scheme Only Tracks Down Two Viewers’. The Herald, 13 January, p1 & p7, 2006. The Scotsman. ‘The Interactive Digital Television Pilot’.The Scotsman, Science and Technology, 13 January, p41, 2006. Society of Public Information Networks (SPIN) ‘Scottish iDTV Pilot – Evaluation’, Electronic Public Information, April/May, p6, 2006. Teaching Programme Leadership Director of theMBA Public Service Management programme. Module Coordination PMA9PS Public Management & Administration(spring)PMA9PANew Public Management(autumn)PMA9PPPartnership Working(spring)PMA9P8 Public Management & Administration Dissertation (spring)PSMP15Managing Partnerships(spring)PSMP22Contemporary Issues in Public Policy and Management(springPSMP20MBA (Public Service Management)Dissertation Other Teaching Contributions MGT9A3The Evolution and Development of Management(autumn)BUS927Strategic Management(autumn)PSMP01The Public Service Manager
My research interests are broadly in the area of contemporary public policy and management, and the policy processes and governance structures associated with governing in the information age. In particular, innovations in processes of governance, public policy and management which are facilitating the adoption and diffusion of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in government, democratic relations and the delivery of public services and citizenship. I am a recognised expert on the emergence of new surveillance technologies in public service and policy settings and a leading authority on the policies and practices surrounding the provision of closed circuit television/video surveillance cameras and systems in public places. My research interests also include the normality of technologically mediated surveillance practices in society, the governance and regulation of privacy and data protection, and the exploration of the defining characteristics of emerging surveillance societies. Other areas of research expertise include the use of Interactive Digital Television (iDTV) for the provision of public services and the use of internet based technologies by political representatives in Scotland.Research Networks and Activity
Chair of the Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) COST Action IS0807 (2009-13). LiSS is the first international multi-disciplinary social science research programme exploring the everyday implications of living in societies where technologically mediated surveillance practices are pervasive. The programme involves over 150 researchers from 26 different countries.
Member of the Surveillance Studies Network (SSN) a registered charitable company dedicated to the study of surveillance in all its forms.
Inaugural member of the Scottish Privacy Forum organised by the Information Commissioners Office.
One of the UK’s two nominated representatives in the ‘Regulation and Control’ Working Group (No.5) of theGovernment and Democracy in the Information Age(GaDIA) European Union COST A14 Action. I was also appointed as a ‘specialist advisor’ to the ‘Cyberdemocracy’ Working Group (No.1) of this research programme.
Member of the nternational Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) an international research network dedicated to the study of public services and management, and a member of the Permanent Study Group on ‘E-Government (Information and Communication Technologies in Public Administration)’ of the European Group of Public Administration(EGPA).
One of the inaugural members of the Centre for the Study of Telematics and Governance (CSTAG) research group based at the Caledonian Business School, Glasgow Caledonian University, and Directed by Professor John Taylor, 1994-2002.
A member of the Scottish Public Management Network (SPMN). The SPMN is a network of researchers and educators into and about public management who are based in HEIs, public policy and public service delivery organisations.
A member of the Chartered Management Institute (CMI) and have also recently been a member of the Information Resource Management Association (IRMA) and the Society of Public Information Networks (SPIN).
A member of the Editorial Board of the journal Information Polity. Information polity is the leading International Journal of Government and Democracy in the Information Age.
In 2009 I successfully secured the funds for the four-year Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) COST Action IS0807 (2009-13). I am Chair and Grant Holder of this Research Programme which is funded by COST via the European Union 7th Framework Programme. In 2005 I was commissioned by the Scottish Executive to undertake a Review of the Scottish Interactive Digital Television Pilot. More information about this research, including the final report, can be found on the Scottish Executive’s Website. This research completed now features as an einclusion case study of the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (Priority 1.1.2).
In 2002 I was commissioned by Kirklees Metropolitan Council to undertake a project evaluation of ‘Joining it up in the Home – a Digital Television Project for Kirklees’. More information about this research, including the final report, can be found on the Kirklees Metropolitan Council Website. This project has informed the development of the National ‘DigiTV’ initiative.
Webster W (2019) Surveillance cameras will soon be unrecognisable - time for an urgent public conversation. The Conversation. 18.06.2019. https://theconversation.com/surveillance-cameras-will-soon-be-unrecognisable-time-for-an-urgent-public-conversation-118931
Leleux C & Webster W (2018) Delivering Smart Governance in a Future City: The Case of Glasgow. Media and Communication, 6 (4), pp. 163-174. E-Government and Smart Cities: Theoretical Reflections and Case Studies. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v6i4.1639
Leleux C & Webster CWR (2018) Resilience, surveillance and big data in crisis management: case studies from Europe, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. In: Boersma K & Fonio C (eds.) Big Data, Surveillance and Crisis Management. Routledge Studies in Surveillance, 1. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 121-142. https://www.routledge.com/Big-Data-Surveillance-and-Crisis-Management/Boersma-Fonio/p/book/9781138195431
Webster CWR (2017) If surveillance cameras are to be kept in line, the rules will have to keep pace with technology. The Conversation. 14.03.2017. https://theconversation.com/if-surveillance-cameras-are-to-be-kept-in-line-the-rules-will-have-to-keep-pace-with-technology-74271
Leleux C & Webster CWR (2016) The Sale of Edited Electoral Registers in Scotland: Implications for Privacy, Data Protection and Citizenship. Scottish Affairs, 25 (4), pp. 479-505. https://doi.org/10.3366/scot.2016.0153
Webster CWR & Leleux C (2016) Body-worn Cameras and Public Services in Scotland (Presentation) University of Glasgow, Urban Big Data Centre, Seminar Series, University of Glasgow, 07.04.2016-07.04.2016.
Webster CWR & Leleux C (2016) The Rise of Body-Worn Video Cameras: A New Surveillance Revolution? (Presentation) The 7th Biennial Surveillance and Society Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 20.04.2016-23.04.2016. http://www.ssn2016.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/Booklet_Abstracts_2016.pdf
Webster W (2015) Proposed powers in surveillance bill will dictate the shape of society to come. The Conversation. 02.11.2015. https://theconversation.com/proposed-powers-in-surveillance-bill-will-dictate-the-shape-of-society-to-come-49972
Goos K, Friedewald M, Webster CWR & Leleux C (2014) The co-evolution of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices. In: Wright D & Kreissl R (eds.) Surveillance in Europe. London: Routledge, pp. 51-100. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415728997/
Neumann A, Berglez R, Kreissl R, Zurawski N, Fischer D, Fonio C, Leleux C, Webster CWR, Peissl W, Lastic E, Kovanic M & Spiller K (2014) IRISS (Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies) FP7 European Research Project, Deliverable 4.2: Doing privacy in everyday encounters with surveillance.. European Commission. European Commission, FP7, IRISS: Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies Deliverable, 4.2. IRISS. http://www.irissproject.eu/
Webster CWR & Leleux C (2014) The Emergence of SMART CCTV in Scotland. SSN 2014: Surveillance Ambiguities & Assymetries - The 6th international Surveillance & Society conference, Barcelona, Spain, 24.04.2014-25.04.2014. http://www.ssn2014.net/?page_id=1184
Leleux C & Webster CWR (2014) The sale of 'edited' electoral registers in Scotland: Implications for Citizenship, Privacy and Data Protection. Surveillance Studies Network, 6th Biennial Conference: 'Ambiguities and Asymmetries', Barcelona, Spain, 24.04.2014-26.04.2014. http://www.ssn2014.net/?page_id=1526
Webster CWR (2013) Surveillance as X-ray. In: Meijer A, Bannister F & Thaens M (eds.) ICT, Public Administration and Democracy in the Coming Decade. Innovation and the Public Sector, 20. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 42-56. http://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/33522
Webster CWR & Leleux C (2013) SMART CCTV in Scotland. European Group of Public Administration Annual Conference, Edinburgh, 11.09.2013-13.09.2013. https://www.conftool.pro/egpa2013/index.php?page=browseSessions&form_session=25
Webster CWR, Galdon Clavell G, Zurawski N, Boersma K, Sagvari B, Backman C & Leleux C (eds.) (2013) Living in Surveillance Societies: 'The State of Surveillance' Proceedings of LiSS Conference 3. Charleston, South Carolina, USA: Create Space Platform. http://www.langtoninfo.co.uk/showitem.aspx?isbn=148404908X
Webster CWR, Leleux C, Sterbik-Lamina J, Cas J, Peissl W, Fischer D, Bonss W, De Hert P, Galdon Clavell G, Galetta A, Fonio C, Jones R, Szekely I & Vissy B (2013) Deliverable D2.1: The Social Perspective. IRISS Work Package 2, 2.1. IRISS - Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies. http://irissproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Social-perspectives-of-surveillance-and-democracy-report-D2.1-IRISS.pdf
Raab CD, Jones R, Fischer D, Bonss W, Lastic E, Szekely I, Vissy B, Galdon Clavell G, Webster CWR, Leleux C, De Hert P & Galetta A (2013) Deliverable D2.2: The Political Perspective. IRISS Work Package 2, 2.2. IRISS - Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies. http://irissproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Political-perspectives-of-surveillance-and-democracy-report-D2.2-IRISS.pdf
Webster CWR, Balahur D, Zurawski N, Boersma K, Sagvari B, Backman C & Leleux C (eds.) (2012) Living in Surveillance Societies: The Ghosts of Surveillance (redacted by Leleux, Charles). Iasi, Romania: Editura Universitatii, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, IASI. http://www.cost.eu/media/publications/12-23-Living-in-Surveillance-Societies-The-Ghosts-of-Surveillance
Webster CWR, Topfer E, Klauser FR & Raab CD (eds.) (2012) Video Surveillance: Practices and Policies in Europe. Innovation and the Public Sector, 18. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press. http://www.iospress.nl/book/video-surveillance/
Webster CWR, Klauser FR, Topfer E & Raab CD (2012) Revisiting the surveillance camera revolution: Issues of governance and public policy. Introduction to part two of the Special Issue. Information Polity, 17 (1), pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-2012-0265
Webster CWR (2012) Public administration as surveillance. In: Ball K, Haggerty K & Lyon D (eds.) The Handbook of Surveilance Studies. Routledge International Handbooks. Abingdon, UK: Routledge UK, pp. 313-320. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415588836/
Webster CWR, Topfer E, Klauser FR & Raab CD (2011) Revisiting the surveillance camera revolution: Issues of governance and public policy. Introduction to Part one of the special issue. Information Polity, 16 (4), pp. 297-301. https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-2011-0262
Murakami Wood D & Webster CWR (2011) The Normality of Living in Surveillance Societies. In: van der Hof S & Groothuis M (eds.) Innovating Government: Normative, Policy and Technological Dimensions of Modern Government. Information Technology and Law Series, 20. The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp. 151-164. http://www.asser.nl/publications.aspx?site_id=28&level1=14485&id=4402
Webster CWR (2011) Policy Processes and the Evidence-base: CCTV (Presentation) Onati International Institute for the Sociology of Law Workshops 2011: "Security Public Policy in an Age of Insecurity", Bilbao, Spain, 07.04.2011-08.04.2011.
Webster CWR (2011) European Perspectives on Surveillance and Everyday Life: Expert panel presentation in the 'Surveillance and Law-enforcement in the Stockholm Programme' session (Presentation) 4th International Conference: Computer, Privacy & Data Protection:
"European Data Protection: In Good Health?", Brussels, Belgium, 25.01.2011-27.01.2011.
Webster CWR (2010) Technological Change and Public-Management Reform: Revisiting Theory and Context. The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy, 3 (2). http://www.nispa.org/journal.php?sid=730
Webster CWR (2010) Introduction of the COST Action "Living in Surveillance Societies" research programme (Presentation) 'Living in (Un)regulated Surveillance Society?' colloquium 2010, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 29.09.2010-29.09.2010.
Webster CWR (2010) Revisiting the Camera Revolution in the UK: A Slide Show (Presentation) 'Living in (Un)regulated Surveillance Society?' colloquium, Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 29 September 2010, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 29.09.2010-29.09.2010.
Webster CWR & Leleux C (2010) CCTV Policy and Practice: Findings from a National Survey of Local Authorities in Scotland (Presentation) "A Global Surveillance Society?" Fourth Biannual Surveillance and Society/SSN conference organised in conjunction with the Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) COST Action, London, UK, 13.04.2010-15.04.2010.
Webster CWR (2009) Interconnections Between Technological and Policy Innovation: Re-evaluating the Evidence-Base Supporting the Provision of CCTV in the UK. Information Polity, 14 (4), pp. 245-259. http://iospress.metapress.com/content/300389/; https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-2009-0181
Murakami Wood D & Webster CWR (2009) Living in surveillance societies: The normalisation of surveillance in Europe and the threat of Britain’s bad example. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 5 (2), pp. 259-273. http://www.jcer.net/index.php/jcer/article/view/159
Webster CWR (2009) CCTV policy in the UK: Reconsidering the evidence base. Surveillance and Society, 6 (1), pp. 10-22. http://www.surveillance-and-society.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/evidence
Lofgren K & Webster CWR (2009) Policy Innovation, Convergence and Divergence: Considering the Policy Transfer Regulating Privacy and Data Protection in Three European Countries. Information Polity, 14 (4), pp. 295-314. http://iospress.metapress.com/content/tk4279221218300u/; https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-2009-0188
Smith C & Webster CWR (2007) The Emergent ICT Culture of Parliamentarians: The Case of the Scottish Parliament. European Group of Public Administration Annual Conference Study Group on eGovernment: Information and Communications Technologies in Public Administration, Madrid, Spain, 19-22 September 2007, Madrid, Spain, 19.09.2007-22.09.2007. http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/view/people/Smith=3AColin_F=3A=3A.default.html
Webster CWR & Smith C (2008) The Emergent ICT Culture of Parliamentarians: The Case of the Scottish Parliament. Information Polity, 13 (3-4), pp. 249-273. http://iospress.metapress.com/content/f5407200756u4125/?p=29bb4d3ee48f4f1a9199d30f2de89748π=9
Webster CWR & Smith C (2008) Is Interactive Digital Television the Future of E-Government Services? A Critical Assessment of UK Initiatives. International Journal of Public Administration, 31 (7), pp. 771-796. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900690701690874
Webster CWR (2007) Myths, Rhetoric and Policy in the Information Age: The Case of Closed Circuit Television. In: Griffin D, Trevorrow P & Halpin E (eds.) Developments in E-Government: A Critical Analysis. First ed. Innovation and the Public Sector, 13. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 16-30. http://ebooks.iospress.com/volume/developments-in-e-government
Webster CWR (2007) CCTV Technology and Policy: The Evolution of the Revolution. "Surveillance in Scotland: Current Practices and Future Prospects" workshop organised by the Public Policy Network, University of Edinburgh, and the Information Commissioner’s Office, Edinburgh, UK, 05.10.2007-05.10.2007.
Smith C & Webster CWR (2006) Interactive Digital Television and the 'New' Citizen. In: Bekkers V, van Duivenboden H & Thaens M (eds.) Information and Communication Technology and Public Innovation: Assessing the ICT-driven Modernization of Public Administration. First ed. Innovation and the Public Sector, 12. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 121-137. http://ebooks.iospress.com/volume/information-and-communication-technology-and-public-innovation
Smith C & Webster CWR (2006) Interactive Digital Television and Electronic Public Services: Emergent Issues. In: Ljunberg J & Andersson M (eds.) ECIS 2006 Proceedings. 14th European Conference on Information Systems, Goteborg, Sweden, 12-14 June 2006, Goteborg, Sweden, 12.06.2006-14.06.2006. Göteborg, Sweden: European Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1932-1948. http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2006/121
Smith C & Webster CWR (2006) Is Interactive Digital Television the Future of E-Government and E-Public Services? Evidence from the Front Line. 10th International Research Symposium on Public Management, Glasgow, UK, 10.04.2006-12.04.2006.
Smith C & Webster CWR (2004) Members of the Scottish Parliament on the Net. Information Polity, 9 (1/2), pp. 67-80. http://iospress.metapress.com/content/bgddqqmpalymx3e7/?p=d88ac74272694e6f97a091556d320357π=6
Webster CWR (2004) The Diffusion, Regulation and Governance of Closed-Circuit Television in the UK. Surveillance and Society, 2 (2/3), pp. 230-250. http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/3376
Webster CWR (2004) Evolving Standards and Regulation: Exploring the Development and Provision of Closed Circuit Television in the United Kingdom. Knowledge, Technology and Policy, 17 (2), pp. 82-103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12130-004-1026-z
Webster CWR (2004) The Evolving Diffusion, Regulation and Governance of Closed Circuit Television in the UK. 1st bi-annual Surveillance and Society conference "CCTV and Social Control: the Politics and Practice of Video Surveillance" 2004, Sheffield, UK, 07.01.2004-08.01.2004.
Smith C & Webster CWR (2003) What’s on the box? Electronic Public Services and the Future of Television. 17th meeting of the Permanent Study Group on Informatization in Public Administration, European Group of Public Administration Annual Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 03.09.2003-06.09.2003.
Webster CWR (2003) Considering Standards, Regulation and the Provision of Closed Circuit Television. European Union COST A14 "Government and Democracy in the Information Age" [GaDIA] final conference, Brussels, Belgium, 06.06.2003-07.06.2003.
Webster CWR (2003) Lights, Camera, Action! networks discourse and diffusion in the closed circuit television policy arena. In: Salminen A (ed.) Governing Networks: EGPA Yearbook. First ed. International Institute of Administrative Sciences Monographs, 22. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 277-296. http://www.iospress.nl/book/governing-networks/
Smith C & Webster CWR (2003) Members of the Scottish Parliament on the Net: Using Internet Based Technologies in the Scottish Parliament. Government and Democracy in the Information Age [GaDIA] 'Cyberdemocracy' Working Group [No.1], Copenhagen, Denmark, 30.01.2003-02.02.2003.
Smith CF & Webster CWR (2002) Delivering Public Services Through Digital Television. Public Money and Management, 22 (4), pp. 25-32. http://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.stir.ac.uk/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-0036809938&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=Delivering+public+services+through+digital+television&sid=3E0F1FEC7D51790BC04BB42A0BFDB0AE.mw4ft95QGjz1tIFG9A1uw%3a190&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=; https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9302.00326
Smith C & Webster CWR (2002) Delivering Public Services Through Digital Television. 16th meeting of the Permanent Study Group on Informatization in Public Administration, European Group of Public Administration Annual Conference, Potsdam, Germany, 04.09.2002-07.06.2002.
Smith C & Webster CWR (2002) Members of the Scottish Parliament on the Net: Using Internet Based Technologies in the Scottish Parliament. Government and Democracy in the Information Age [GaDIA] 'Cyberdemocracy' Working Group [No.1], Prague, Czech Republic, 02.05.2002-03.05.2002.
Webster CWR (2002) Evolving Standards and Regulation: Exploring the Development and Provision of Closed Circuit Television in the UK. Government and Democracy in the Information Age [GaDIA] 'Regulation and Control' Working Group [No.5], Brussels, Belgium, 03.03.2002-04.03.2002.
Webster CWR & Hood J (2001) Surveillance in the Community: Community Development Through the Use of Closed-Circuit Television. In: Keeble L & Loader B (eds.) Community informatics: shaping computer-mediated social relations. First ed. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 220-239. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415231121/
Webster CWR & Hood J (2001) Surveillance in the Community: Community Development Through the Diffusion of Closed Circuit Television Surveillance Cameras. In: Keeble L & Loader B (eds.) Community Informatics: Shaping Computer-Mediated Social Relations. 'Community Informatics - Community Development Through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies [ICT’s]' conference, CIRA, University of Teesside, UK, 26-28 April 2000, Teesside, UK, 26.04.2000-28.04.2000. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 220-239. https://www.routledge.com/Community-Informatics-Shaping-Computer-Mediated-Social-Networks/Eagle-Hague-Keeble-Loader/p/book/9780415231121
Webster CWR (2001) Lights, Camera, Action: Networks Discourse and Diffusion in the Closed Circuit Television Policy Arena. 15th meeting of the Permanent Study Group on Informatization in Public Administration, European Group of Public Administration Annual Conference, Vaasa, Finland, 05.09.2001-08.09.2001.
Webster CWR (2001) Standards Without Regulation: Exploring the Development and Provision of Closed Circuit Television in the UK. Government and Democracy in the Information Age [GaDIA] 'Regulation and Control' Working Group [No.5], Oslo, Norway, 25.08.2001-25.08.2001.
Falconer P, Smith C & Webster CWR (2001) Introduction: Managing Parliaments in the 21st Century. In: Falconer P, Smith M & Webster C (eds.) Managing Parliaments in the 21st Century: EGPA Yearbook. First ed. International Institute of Administrative Sciences Monographs, 16. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 1-6. http://www.iospress.nl/book/managing-parliaments-in-the-21st-century/
Webster CWR (2000) Relegitimating the Democratic Polity: The Closed Circuit Television Revolution in the UK. In: Hoff J, Horrocks I & Tops P (eds.) Democratic Governance and New Technology: Technologically Mediated Innovations in Political Practices in Western Europe. First ed. Routledge/ECPR Studies in European Political Science. London, UK: Routledge, pp. 110-123. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415189224/
Webster CWR (2000) Closed Circuit Television: Evolving Standards and Regulation in the UK (Presentation) Government and Democracy in the Information Age (GaDIA) 'Regulation and Control' Working Group (No.5), Glasgow, UK, 31.08.2000-31.08.2000.
Webster CWR (1999) Cyber Society or Surveillance Society? Findings From a National Survey on Closed Circuit Television in the UK. In: Armitage J & Roberts J (eds.) Exploring Cyber Society Conference Proceedings: Volume 2: Social, Political, Economic and Cultural Issues. 'Exploring Cyber Society: Social, Political and Cultural Issues' conference, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, 5-7 July 1999, Newcastle, UK, 05.07.1999-07.07.1999. Newcastle, UK: University of Northumbria at Newcastle, School of Social, Political & Economic Sciences.