Research Report

Review of emerging technologies in policing: findings and recommendations



Connon I, Egan M, Hamilton-Smith N, MacKay N, Miranda D & Webster W (2023) Review of emerging technologies in policing: findings and recommendations. Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Edinburgh.

This report has been compiled for the Scottish Government’s “Emerging Technologies in Policing” project, and was commissioned by the Scottish Institute for Policing Research (SIPR) acting on behalf of the Scottish Government. It is based on a review of emerging technologies in policing undertaken between January and July 2022. The review was completed by a research team based at the University of Stirling. The review considered: 1) the social and ethical implications of particular types of emerging technologies in policing practice, 2) the legal considerations associated with the adoption of emerging technologies in policing, 3) recommendations from the existing research examining the trial and adoption of new emerging technologies in policing, as well as for ethical and scientific standards frameworks and guidelines, for informing best practice and wider dissemination of these technologies in police practice, 4) recommendations for the use of emerging technologies in policing based on experiences from other sectors (Health, Children and Family), and 5) the lessons learnt and recommendations that can be made from the analysis of existing case law concerning emerging technology. The report provides a descriptive overview of the relevant literature and case law available, as well as a series of recommendations for best practice in the implementation and dissemination of the different forms of technology in police practice The types of emerging technologies in policing practice considered in this review are electronic databases, biometric identification systems and artificial intelligence (AI), and surveillance systems and tracking devices.

Equality and Human Rights Impact Assessment; Emerging Technologies; Policing; Surveillance Technologies and Tracking Devices; Biometric Identification Systems; Electronic Databases

FundersScottish Institute for Policing Research
Publication date28/02/2023
Publication date online28/02/2023
Publisher URL…recommendations/
Place of publicationEdinburgh

People (4)


Dr Mo Egan
Dr Mo Egan

Lecturer in Criminal Law & Human Rights, Law

Dr Niall Hamilton-Smith
Dr Niall Hamilton-Smith

Associate Professor, Sociology, Social Policy & Criminology

Dr Diana Miranda
Dr Diana Miranda

Lecturer in Criminology, Sociology, Social Policy & Criminology

Professor William Webster
Professor William Webster

Personal Chair, Management, Work and Organisation

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