Tessa is Research Director for the Salvation Army Centre for Addiction Services and Research at the University of Stirling where she leads a number of research and knowledge exchange projects focused on the reduction of harms and promotion of health and well-being for those impacted by social and health inequalities.
Tessa has experience in the statutory and non-statutory health, social care and housing/ homelessness sectors as a front-line support worker, team leader, and mental health nurse, and has provided consultancy and training to a wide variety of organisations focused on service improvement to better meet the needs of healthcare users with mental health issues including related to problem use of substances. She has a track record of creating positive impact on policy and practice through research. For 20 years her research activity has centred on enhancing the experience of people who use health/social care services, with a clear commitment to social justice, health equity and advocacy for poorly serviced groups including people who use alcohol and drugs.
She participates in committees related to drugs and alcohol, such as the Ministerial Drugs Death Taskforce, is Grantholder and Deputy Convenor for the Drugs Research Network Scotland, and is a member of Research England’s Research Excellence Framework Equality and Diversity Panel (EDAP).
An international and intersectional dialogue on how to reduce harm and promote wellbeing amongst people who have housing, health and substance use challenges: A series of knowledge exchange events Scottish Universities Insight Institute
http://www.scottishinsight.ac.uk/…827/Default.aspx People who experience homelessness often have intersecting health problems including poor mental and physical health and problem substance use (Hewett & Halligan 2010). The co-occurrence of these three problems has been termed ‘tri-morbidity’. Problem substance use is often a contributing factor to someone becoming homeless and accounts for over a third of deaths in homeless people (Crisis 2011). Engagement with treatment services, particularly those which expect abstinence, can be extremely challenging (Collins et al. 2016). While harm reduction approaches are recommended for those unlikely to achieve abstinence (Raistrick et al. 2006), there is virtually no specific guidance on how harms from problem substance use can be reduced for homeless people. International models of care and housing provision exist but their relevance to Scotland has not been systematically explored. To address this gap we will create a dialogue on international, national and local best practices in this area and, most critically, on how we can work better together across sectors and disciplines to develop Scottish solutions. We will bring together a diverse group who have substantial knowledge of the issues to develop a nuanced understanding of the current position and how this can better inform policy and practice developments going forward.
My research activities centre on drug and alcohol use, homelessness, harm reduction, social inequalities, the role of peers in transforming services for people who use substances. I am a mixed methods researcher experienced in intervention development and research that meanigfully involves people whose lives are effected by the issues being studied.
Parkes T, Carver H, Masterton W, Falzon D, Dumbrell J, Grant S & Wilson I (2021) 'They already operated like it was a crisis, because it always has been a crisis': a qualitative exploration of the response of one homeless service in Scotland to the COVID-19 pandemic. Harm Reduction Journal, 18, Art. No.: 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00472-w
Kouimtsidis C, Pauly B, Parkes T, Stockwell T & Baldacchino AM (2021) COVID-19 Social Restrictions: An Opportunity to Re-visit the Concept of Harm Reduction in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence. A Position Paper. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, Art. No.: 623649. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.623649
Price T, Parkes T & Malloch M (2021) 'Discursive struggles' between criminal justice sanctions and health interventions for people who use drugs: a qualitative exploration of diversion policy and practice in Scotland. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 28 (2), pp. 118-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2020.1775180
Parkes T, Carver H, Masterton W, Falzon D, Dumbrell J, Grant S & Wilson I (2021) "You know, we can change the services to suit the circumstances of what is happening in the world": a rapid case study of the COVID-19 response across city centre homelessness and health services in Edinburgh, Scotland. Harm Reduction Journal, 18, Art. No.: 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00508-1
Miler J, Carver H, Masterton W, Parkes T, Maden M, Jones L & Sumnall H (2021) What treatment and services are effective for people who are homeless and use drugs? A systematic 'review of reviews'. PLoS ONE, 16 (7), Art. No.: e0254729. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254729
Schofield J, Steven D, Foster R, Matheson C, Baldacchino A, McAuley A & Parkes T (2021) Quantifying prescribed high dose opioids in the community and risk of overdose. BMC Public Health, 21 (1), Art. No.: 1174. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11162-4
Carver H, McCulloch P & Parkes T (2021) How might the 'Icelandic model' for preventing substance use among young people be developed and adapted for use in Scotland? Utilising the consolidated framework for implementation research in a qualitative exploratory study. BMC Public Health, 21, Art. No.: 1742. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11828-z
Parkes T, Carver H, Matheson C, Browne T & Pauly B (2021) 'It's like a safety haven': Considerations for the implementation of Managed Alcohol Programs in Scotland. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2021.1945536
Burton G, McAuley A, Schofield J, Yeung A, Matheson C & Parkes T (2021) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of take-home naloxone (THN) ownership and carriage. International Journal of Drug Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103298
Miler JA, Foster R, Hnizdilova K, Murdoch H & Parkes T (2021) 'It maybe doesn't seem much, but to me it's my kingdom': staff and client experiences of Housing First in Scotland. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687637.2021.1926429
Masterton W, Carver H & Parkes T (2021) Preventing substance use among young people in Dundee: Lessons from the ‘Youth in Iceland Model’. University of Stirling Public Policy Blog [Blog post] 30.04.2021. https://policyblog.stir.ac.uk/2021/04/30/preventing-substance-use-among-young-people-in-dundee-lessons-from-the-youth-in-iceland-model/
Parkes T, Carver H & Tyrie P (2021) How might the 'Youth in Iceland Model' for preventing substance use among young people be developed and adapted for use in Dundee, Scotland?. University of Stirling. Stirling. https://www.stir.ac.uk/research/public-policy-hub/policy-briefings/
Miler J, Carver H, Masterton W, Parkes T, Jones L, Maden M & Sumnall H (2021) Evidence Review Of Drug Treatment Services For People Who Are Homeless And Use Drugs. Health Research Board. HRB Drug and Alcohol Evidence Review, 7. Dublin. https://www.drugsandalcohol.ie/33910
Carver H, Parkes T, Browne T, Matheson C & Pauly B (2021) Investigating the need for alcohol harm reduction and Managed Alcohol Programs for people experiencing homelessness and alcohol use disorders in Scotland. Drug and Alcohol Review, 40 (2), pp. 220-230. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.13178
Miler J, Carver H, Foster R & Parkes T (2020) Provision of peer support at the intersection of homelessness and problem substance use services: a systematic 'state of the art' review. BMC Public Health, 20, Art. No.: 641. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8407-4
Carver H, Ring N, Miler J & Parkes T (2020) What constitutes effective problematic substance use treatment from the perspective of people who are homeless? A systematic review and meta-ethnography. Harm Reduction Journal, 17, Art. No.: 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-0356-9
Schofield J, Matheson C, Browne T, Dumbrell J, Parkes T, Bancroft A & Galip I (2020) The impacts of COVID-19 on people who use drugs. The impacts of COVID-19 on people who use drugs (1.0) [Website] 20.11.2020. https://covid-drugs.stir.ac.uk/
Parkes T, Matheson C, Carver H, Foster R, Budd J, Liddell D, Wallace J, Pauly B, Fotopoulou M, Burley A, Anderson I & MacLennan G (2020) Supporting harm reduction through peer support (SHARPS): Testing the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-delivered, relational intervention for people with problem substance use who are homeless, via a mixed methods study. Health Technology Assessment.
Carver H & Parkes T (2020) Social science inspires researchers to create much needed system and service change for people who are homeless with substance use problems. Campaign for Social Science. 03.09.2020.
Masterton W, Carver H, Parkes T & Park K (2020) Greenspace interventions for mental health in clinical and non-clinical populations: What works, for whom, and in what circumstances?. Health and Place, 64, Art. No.: 102338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102338
Parkes T, Carver H, Matheson C, Pauly B & Browne T (2020) Feasibility and acceptability of Managed Alcohol Programmes for people who are homeless with severe alcohol problems. University of Stirling. Stirling: University of Stirling. https://www.stir.ac.uk/research/public-policy-hub/policy-briefings/
Parkes T, Matheson C, Carver H, Budd J, Liddell D, Wallace J, Pauly B, Fotopoulou M, Burley A, Anderson I, MacLennan G & Foster R (2019) Supporting Harm Reduction through Peer Support (SHARPS): testing the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-delivered, relational intervention for people with problem substance use who are homeless, to improve health outcomes, quality of life and social functioning and reduce harms: study protocol. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 5 (1), Art. No.: 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-019-0447-0
Fotopoulou M & Parkes T (2017) Family solidarity in the face of stress: responses to drug use problems in Greece. Addiction Research and Theory, 25 (4), pp. 326-333. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2017.1279152
McAuley A, Robertson JR & Parkes T (2017) Scotland’s drug death crisis needs a radical harm reduction response – now. The Conversation. 17.08.2017. https://theconversation.com/scotlands-drug-death-crisis-needs-a-radical-harm-reduction-response-now-82650
Stead M, Parkes T, Nicoll A, Wilson S, Burgess C, Eadie D, Fitzgerald N, McKell J, Reid G, Jepson R, McAteer J & Bauld L (2017) Delivery of alcohol brief interventions in community-based youth work settings: exploring feasibility and acceptability in a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 17 (1), Art. No.: 357. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4256-1
Ikani S, Parkes T & Aduak Y (2016) Ethical pathways to informed consent when collecting information from children in research. Interventional Pediatrics and Research, 1 (1), Art. No.: 102. http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/ethical-pathways-to-informed-consent-when-collecting-information-fromchildren-in-research-ipdr-1000102.php?aid=66822
Stead M, Eadie D, McKell J, Bauld L, Parkes T, Nicoll A, Wilson S & Burgess C (2014) Process Evaluation of Alcohol Brief Interventions in Wider Settings (Young People and Social Work). NHS Health Scotland. NHS Health Scotland. http://www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/23021-1.%20ABIs%20in%20Wider%20Settings%20report.pdf
Parkes T, Stead M, Eadie D, Nicoll A, McKell J, Bauld L, Wilson S, Burgess C, Reid G, McAteer J & Jepson R (2013) Alcohol brief interventions in youth and social work settings in Scotland. International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013, Rome, Italy, 18/09/2013 - 20/09/2013. Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 8 (Supplement 1), p. A52. http://ascpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1940-0640-8-S1-A52; https://doi.org/10.1186/1940-0640-8-S1-A52
Taylor J, Parkes T, Haw S, Jepson R & Taylor J (2012) Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups. Systematic Reviews, 1 (1), Art. No.: 53. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-1-53
MacAskill S, Parkes T, Brooks O, Graham L, McAuley A & Brown A (2011) Assessment of alcohol problems using AUDIT in a prison setting: more than an 'aye or no' question. BMC Public Health, 11 (Article 865), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-865
Parkes T (2011) An evaluation to assess the implementation of NHS delivered Alcohol Brief Interventions in Scotland (Presentation) Faculty of Public Health Scotland Annual Conference 2011, Aviemore, UK, 10.11.2011-11.11.2011.
Parkes T, Atherton I, Evans J, Gloyn S, McGhee S, Stoddart B, Eadie D, Brooks O, MacAskill S, Petrie D & Choudury H (2011) An evaluation to assess the implementation of NHS delivered Alcohol Brief Interventions: Final Report. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland. http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/5438.aspx
Parkes T (2011) The evaluation of ABI implementation (Presentation) Alcohol Brief Interventions National Event 2011, Glasgow, UK, 06.09.2011-06.09.2011. http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/5990.aspx
McGhee S, Parkes T, MacAskill S, Graham L & McAuley A (2011) Screening for alcohol problems in non-healthcare settings: Utilising routine processes and non-researchers to collect health-related data in a prison setting (Presentation) The 2011 International Nursing Research Conference, Harrogate, UK, 16.05.2011-18.05.2011.
Parkes T, Coull AF, Stoddart B & Gray S (2011) Non-medical nurse prescribing in addictions: Lessons for Service Improvement (Presentation) The 2011 International Nursing Research Conference, Harrogate, UK, 16.05.2011-18.05.2011.
Parkes T (2011) Prison Health Needs Assessment for Alcohol Problems (Keynote address) (Presentation) Alcohol and Offenders National Event 2011, Edinburgh, UK, 08.02.2011-08.02.2011. http://www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/15169-TessaParkesPrison%20health%20needs%20assessment%20for%20alcohol.pdf
Smith A, Roxburgh M, James B, Mackay S, Gray C, Parkes T, Lauder W, McCulloch K & Wilson C (2010) Developing Community Nursing Practice: Promoting Case Management and Skill Enhancement to Support Shifting the Balance of Care. NHS Highland. http://www.nhshighland.scot.nhs.uk
Parkes T, MacAskill S, Brooks O, Jepson R, Atherton I, Doi L, McGhee S & Eadie D (2010) Prison health needs assessment for alcohol problems. NHS Health Scotland. http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/4932.aspx
Parkes T & Nelles B (2010) Privileging client experience within methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in British Columbia, Canada: Lessons for heath care system change and research practice (Presentation) The 2010 International Nursing Research Conference, Gateshead, UK, 11.05.2010-13.05.2010.
Parkes T & Wardman D (2010) "Sometimes our people get tossed out of the system": Accessibility and appropriateness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment/Therapy (MMT) and harm reduction services for Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia, Canada (Presentation) Harm Reduction 2010: "Harm Reduction - The Next Generation": 21st International Harm Reduction Association Annual Conference, Liverpool, UK, 25.04.2010-29.04.2010.
Parkes T (2010) The British Columbia Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program: A qualitative systems review. University of Victoria. Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC), University of Victoria.
Glenister D, Parkes T, Tilley S & Ryan D (2009) Process in the life-world or progression through the institution? How nursing academic careers weave personal knowledge and discontinuous narratives into conversations of multiple identities (Presentation) Third CETL Conference 2009: "Beyond Teaching and Research: Inclusive Understandings of Academic Practice", Oxford, UK, 13.12.2009-15.12.2009.
Parkes T (2009) "Between a Rock and a Hard Place": Creating healthcare system change by privileging client experience within Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in British Columbia. 10th Annual Interdisciplinary Research Conference: "Transforming Healthcare through Research Education and Technology", Dublin, Ireland, 04.11.2009-05.11.2009. http://nursing-midwifery.tcd.ie/assets/events-conference/doc-2009/book_of_abstracts_nov_2009.pdf
Parkes T, Salmon A, Coull AF & Gloyn S (2009) I and Thou: Refocusing on relationality in substance use treatment. "Models, implications and meanings of alcohol and drug treatment systems": Thematic meeting of the Kettil Bruun Society for Social and Epidemiological Research on Alcohol 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, 07.10.2009-09.10.2009.
Parkes T (2009) Self-Management and Methadone - Strange Bedfellows? The need for a paradigm shift in the care, treatment and support of people with opioid dependency (Presentation) Alliance for Self-Care Research Seminar 2009, Stirling, UK, 21.04.2009-21.04.2009.
Parkes T, Poole N, Salmon A, Greaves L & Urquhart C (2009) Double Exposure: A Better Practices Review on Alcohol Interventions in Pregnancy. The 3rd International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Victoria, British Columbia, 11.03.2009-14.03.2009.
Salmon A, Livingston A, Browne A, Pederson A, Dykstra L, Ham J & Parkes T (2009) "Me, I'm Living It": The Primary Health Care Experiences of Women who use Drugs in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside: Summary of Findings from the
VANDU Women's Clinic Action Research for Empowerment Study. The British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health. http://www.bccewh.bc.ca/publications-resources/documents/MeImLivingit.pdf
Parkes T, Poole N, Salmon A, Greaves L & Urquhart C (2008) Double Exposure: A Better Practices Review on Alcohol Interventions During Pregnancy. British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health. http://www.cwhn.ca/en/node/43073
Parkes T & Ziegler M (2009) Tools to support working with women with intersecting violence, substance use and mental health concerns (Presentation) British Columbia Association of Specialised Victim Assistance and Counselling Programmes Annual Training Forum 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, 20.11.2009-21.11.2009.
Poole N, Parkes T, Urquhart C, Greaves L & Salmon A (2008) Double Exposure: A Better Practices Review on Alcohol Interventions during Pregnancy (Presentation) 9th Annual Fetal Alcohol Canadian Expertise (FACE) Research Roundtable, Montreal, Canada, 09.09.2008-09.09.2008.
Parkes T & Salmon A (2008) Effective interventions to support women to reduce their alcohol use in the childbearing years and during pregnancy: a better practices systematic review (Presentation) 34th Annual Alcohol Epidemiology Symposium of the Kettil Bruun Society, Victoria, Canada, 01.06.2008-06.06.2008.
Parkes T, Welch C, Besla K, Leavitt S, Ziegler M, MacDougall A, Armstrong S, LaCombe B, LeClaire M, Taylor N & Cory J (2007) Freedom from Violence: Tools for Working with Trauma, Mental Health and Substance Use: Resource Tool Kit. Armstrong S (Editor). Ending Violence Association of British Columbia. http://www.endingviolence.org/node/459
Parkes T & Salmon A (2007) Safe Conversations: Holistic safety planning with women with violence, mental health and substance use (Presentation) British Columbia Association of Specialised Victim Assistance and Counselling Program’s Annual Training Forum 2007, Vancouver, Canada, 30.11.2007-30.11.2007.
Parkes T & Urquhart C (2007) What's our Direction? Addressing Women’s Experience of Violence and Substance Use (Presentation) BC-Yukon Society of Transition Houses’ Annual Conference 2007, Vancouver, Canada, 31.05.2007-31.05.2007.
Cambridge P & Parkes T (2006) The Management and Practice of Joint Adult Protection Investigations between Health and Social Services: Issues arising from a training intervention. Social Work Education, 25 (8), pp. 824-837. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615470600915886
Cambridge P & Parkes T (2006) The Tension between Mainstream Competence and Specialization in Adult Protection: An Evaluation of the Role of the Adult Protection Co-ordinator. British Journal of Social Work, 36 (2), pp. 299-321. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch245
Craig G, Taylor M & Parkes T (2004) Protest or Partnership? The Voluntary and Community Sectors in the Policy Process. Social Policy and Administration, 38 (3), pp. 221-239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2004.00387.x
Chambers M, Glenister D, Kelly CE & Parkes T (2004) Involving individuals in mental health nursing education. In: Tilley S (ed.) Psychiatric and mental health nursing: the field of knowledge. First ed. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 114-128. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0632058455.html
Parkes T, Taylor M & Wilkinson M (2003) From Protest to Partnership? Voluntary and Community Organisations in the Democratic Process. In: Taylor G & Todd M (eds.) Democracy and Participation: Popular protest and new social movements. First ed. United Kingdom: Merlin Press. http://www.merlinpress.co.uk
Parkes T (1997) Reflections from the outside-in: my journey into, through and beyond psychiatric nursing. In: Tilley S (ed.) The mental health nurse: views of practice and education. First ed. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 58-72. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-063203999X.html