I joined the Department in 1970, after graduate work at Oxford, and a year at the University of Washington, Seattle.
I retired formally in 2009, but retain close connections with the Department as a Professor Emeritus. From 2010 to 2015 I also held a part-time position in the Law School at the University of Minnesota.
Founding Co-Editor, Criminal Law and Philosophy; Founding Co-Director, Robina Institute for Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, University of Minnesota Law School; Associate, Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research; Honorary Professor, University of Edinburgh Law School
Board member, Howard League Scotland; Patron, Philosophy in Prison. From 2011-2014 I chaired a British Academy Working Group on the use of imprisonment: our report, A Presumption Against Imprisonment, was published in 2014.
D. Juris (ho notary), University of Oslo
Doctor of Law (honorary)., University of Edinburgh
Fellow of the British Academy
Fellow, Royal Society of Edinburgh