Duff RA (2015) Presumptions of Innocence. In: Flanders C & Hoskins Z (eds.) The New Philosophy of Criminal Law. London: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 193-209. https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781783484140/The-New-Philosophy-of-Criminal-Law
First paragraph: An explanation of the Presumption of Innocence (PoI) must tell us what is to be presumed, of whom, by whom, to what effect, and what can defeat that presumption. In the criminal trial, where the PoI has its most familiar home, initial answers to these questions are quite easy. The court that is to reach a verdict must presume that the defendant is innocent of the crime charged, with the effect that he must be acquitted, unless the prosecution proves his guilt.