Dr Christian Schroeder

Senior Lecturer

Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA

Dr Christian Schroeder

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About me

About me

With my research and teaching, I span the disciplines of Environmental Science and Planetary Exploration. My overarching research interest is in the (bio)geochemical iron cycle and its interactions with other nutrient element cycles such as carbon and sulphur.

Reactive iron mineral phases play an essential role in the sequestration of carbon in soils and sediments, they influence the lateral transport of carbon from land to the ocean, and they determine bioavailability of both iron and carbon in the open ocean where iron is often the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth. Understanding these controls of the carbon cycle is essential in our fight to mitigate global climate change on Earth.

The search for life on Mars relies on the preservation of organic compounds over geological timescales. Reactive iron mineral phases can aid that preservation through the same processes involved in the sequestration of carbon in sediments. I worked with NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and am currently involved in the ESA ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover mission, which is due to launch in 2022.

The main method I use to investigate iron minerals involved in these processes is Mössbauer spectroscopy. At the beginning of my career, I got involved with the development of a miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer for the NASA Mars Exploration Rover mission. I now run a Mössbauer spectroscopy laboratory in Stirling that offers conventional Mössbauer spectroscopy for iron mineralogy, speciation, and oxidation states (coupled to a cryostat enabling low temperature analyses to below 4.2 K - the temperature of liquid helium); (field-)portable Mössbauer spectroscopy for non-destructive and in situ analyses; and synchrotron-based Mössbauer applications for microscopic sample volumes.

Research Group: Earth and Planetary Observation Sciences

Advisory roles:
2021- UK Space Agency Robotic Exploration Oversight Committee
2019- Scottish Blue Carbon Forum member and project PI
2019- European Space Agency/Roscosmos ExoMars Rover Science Operations Working Group
2018- Africa Initiative for Planetary and Space Science Scientific Advisory Committee
2017- Scottish Alliance for Geoscience, Environment and Society (SAGES) Executive Committee
2016- Scottish Planetary Science Research Network (SPERO) Executive Board
2015- Frontiers in Earth Science-Geochemistry Editorial Board
2015-2017 UK Space Agency Space Exploration Advisory Committee
2015-2016 UK Space Agency Sample Return Working Group
2015 UK Space Agency Space Exploration Education Review Panel
2012-2013 International Journal of Astrobiology Editorial Board
2003-2019 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Athena Science Team Collaborator

Research (7)

Biogeochemistry Environmental Science Planetary Exploration Metorites

Projects

Amplifying our students' voice: the co-production of undergraduate field courses (residential and non-residential) to address EDI
PI: Dr Martina Quaggiotto
Funded by: Natural Environment Research Council

Developing a robust observational framework for chondrite identification on Mars
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK

Geochemical investigation of Mars with Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: Science & Technology Facilities Council

The sedimentary iron cycle: A novel way to iron mineral characterization and separation
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: The Carnegie Trust

Continued geochemical investigation of Noachian crust at Endeavour Crater with Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: Science & Technology Facilities Council

A miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer developed for Mars exploration applied to geological repositories for non-destructive and in situ analyses
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: Science & Technology Facilities Council

SAGES Scheme 2 ECR exchanges with Europe, North America, China and India
PI: Dr Christian Schroeder
Funded by: Scottish Alliance for Geoscience, Environment and Society

Outputs (113)

Outputs

Showing 100 of 113 — See all 113 outputs

Article

Mittlefehldt DW, Gellert R, VanBommel S, Arvidson RE, Ashley JW, Clark BC, Crumpler LS, Farrand WH, Golombek MP, Grant JA, Morris RV & Schroeder C (2021) Geology and Geochemistry of Noachian Bedrock and Alteration Events, Meridiani Planum, Mars: MER Opportunity Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 126 (9), Art. No.: e2021JE006915. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JE006915

Book Chapter

Morris RV, Schröder C, Klingelhöfer G & Agresti DG (2019) Mössbauer Spectroscopy at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum: Iron Mineralogy, Oxidation State, and Alteration on Mars. In: Bishop JL, Bell JF & Moersch JE (eds.) Remote Compositional Analysis: Techniques for Understanding Spectroscopy, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Planetary Surfaces. Cambridge Planetary Science, 24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 538-554. https://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/earth-and-environmental-science/planetary-science-and-astrobiology/remote-compositional-analysis-techniques-understanding-spectroscopy-mineralogy-and-geochemistry-planetary-surfaces?format=HB; https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316888872.029

Article

Mittlefehldt D, Gellert R, VanBommel S, Ming D, Yen A, Clark BC, Morris R, Schröder C, Crumpler LS, Grant JA, Jolliff BL, Arvidson RE, Farrand WH, Herkenhoff KE, Bell J, Cohen B, Klingelhöfer G, Schrader C & Rice J (2018) Diverse Lithologies and Alteration Events on the Rim of Noachian-Aged Endeavour Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In-Situ Compositional Evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123 (5), pp. 1255-1306. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005474

Meeting Abstract

Peiffer S, McCammon C, Wan M & Schroeder C (2018) Metastable sulphur species at iron mineral surfaces. 255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, New Orleans LA, 18 Mar 2018-22 Mar 2018. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 255, Art. No.: 223.

Article

Markovsky C, Byrne JM, Lalla E, Lozano-Gorrin AD, Klingelhoefer G, Rull F, Kappler A, Hoffmann T & Schröder C (2017) Abiotic versus biotic iron mineral transformation studied by a miniaturized backscattering Mössbauer spectrometer (MIMOS II), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Icarus, 296, pp. 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.05.017

Article

Schröder C (2015) Mössbauer spectroscopy in astrobiology. Spectroscopy Europe, 27 (2), pp. 10-13. http://www.spectroscopyeurope.com/articles/55-articles/3467-moessbauer-spectroscopy-in-astrobiology

Article

Nitzsche KS, Lan VM, Trang PTK, Viet PH, Berg M, Voegelin A, Planer-Friedrich B, Zahoransky J, Mueller S, Byrne JM, Schröder C, Behrens S & Kappler A (2015) Arsenic removal from drinking water by a household sand filter in Vietnam - Effect of filter usage practices on arsenic removal efficiency and microbiological water quality. Science of the Total Environment, 502, pp. 526-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.055

Book Chapter

Gutlich P & Schröder C (2012) Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In: Schäfer R & Schmidt P (eds.) Methods in Physical Chemistry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, pp. 351-389. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527636839.ch11/summary

Article

Emmerich M, Bhansali A, Losekann-Behrens T, Schröder C, Kappler A & Behrens S (2012) Abundance, Distribution, and Activity of Fe(II)-Oxidizing and Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganisms in Hypersaline Sediments of Lake Kasin, Southern Russia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (12), pp. 4386-4399. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.07637-11

Article

Ashley JW, Golombek M, Christensen PR, Squyres SW, McCoy TJ, Schröder C, Fleischer I, Johnson JR, Herkenhoff KE & Parker TJ (2011) Evidence for mechanical and chemical alteration of iron‐nickel meteorites on Mars: Process insights for Meridiani Planum. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 116 (E7), Art. No.: E00F20. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003672

Article

Crumpler LS, Arvidson RE, Squyres SW, McCoy TJ, Yingst RA, Ruff SW, Farrand WH, McSween HY, Powell MW, Ming DW, Morris RV, Bell III JF, Grant JA, Greeley R & Schröder C (2011) Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 116 (E7), Art. No.: E00F24. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003749

Article

Arvidson RE, Ashley JW, Bell III JF, Chojnacki M, Cohen J, Economou TET, Farrand WH, Fergason RL, Fleischer I, Geissler P, Gellert R, Golombek M, Grotzinger JP, Guinness EA & Schröder C (2011) Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 116 (E7), Art. No.: E00F15. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003746

Article

Schröder C, Herkenhoff KE, Farrand WH, Chappelow JH, Wang W, Nittler LR, Ashley JW, Fleischer I, Gellert R, Golombek M, Johnson JR, Klingelhoefer G, Li R, Morris RV & Squyres SW (2010) Properties and distribution of paired candidate stony meteorites at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 115 (E7), Art. No.: E00F09. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003616

Article

Weitz C, Farrand WH, Johnson JR, Fleischer I, Schröder C, Yingst RA, Jolliff BL, Gellert R, Bell III JF, Herkenhoff KE, Klingelhoefer G, Cohen BA, Calvin WM, Rutherford M & Ashley JW (2010) Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of geochemically measured rock fragments at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 115 (E7), Art. No.: E00F10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003660

Article

Fleischer I, Brueckner J, Schröder C, Farrand WH, Treguier E, Morris RV, Klingelhoefer G, Herkenhoff KE, Mittlefehldt DW, Ashley JW, Golombek M, Johnson JR, Jolliff BL, Squyres SW, Weitz C, Gellert R, de Souza Jr PA & Cohen BA (2010) Mineralogy and chemistry of cobbles at Meridiani Planum, Mars, investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 115 (E7), Art. No.: E00F05. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003621

Other

Gutlich P & Schröder C (2010) Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Bunsen-Magazin, 12 (1), pp. 4-22. http://www.bunsen.de/bunsen_media/Downloads/BUNSEN_MAGAZIN/Erschienene+BM/BuMa_2010_01.pdf

Article

Squyres SW, Knoll AH, Arvidson RE, Ashley JW, Bell III JF, Calvin WM, Christensen PR, Clark BC, Cohen BA, de Souza Jr PA, Edgar LA, Farrand WH, Fleischer I, Gellert R & Schröder C (2009) Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity. Science, 324 (5930), pp. 1058-1061. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1170355

Article

Schmidt ME, Farrand WH, Johnson JR, Schröder C, Hurowitz JA, McCoy TJ, Ruff SW, Arvidson RE, DesMarais DJ, Lewis KW, Ming DW, Squyres SW & de Souza Jr PA (2009) Spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical variations across Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars indicate high and low temperature alteration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 281 (3-4), pp. 258-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.02.030

Article

Arvidson RE, Ruff SW, Morris RV, Ming DW, Crumpler LS, Yen AS, Squyres SW, Sullivan RJ, Bell III JF, Cabrol NA, Clark BC, Farrand WH, Gellert R, Greenberger R & Schröder C (2008) Spirit Mars Rover Mission to the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater: Mission overview and selected results from the Cumberland Ridge to Home Plate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E12), Art. No.: E12S33. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003183

Article

Morris RV, Klingelhoefer G, Schröder C, Fleischer I, Ming DW, Yen AS, Gellert R, Arvidson RE, Rodionov DS, Crumpler LS, Clark BC, Cohen BA, McCoy TJ, Mittlefehldt DW, Schmidt ME, de Souza Jr PA & Squyres SW (2008) Iron mineralogy and aqueous alteration from Husband Hill through Home Plate at Gusev Crater, Mars: Results from the Mössbauer instrument on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E12), Art. No.: E12S42. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003201

Article

Ming DW, Gellert R, Morris RV, Arvidson RE, Brueckner J, Clark BC, Cohen BA, d'Uston C, Economou TET, Fleischer I, Klingelhoefer G, McCoy TJ, Mittlefehldt DW, Schmidt ME, Schröder C, Squyres SW, Treguier E, Yen AS & Zipfel J (2008) Geochemical properties of rocks and soils in Gusev Crater, Mars: Results of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer from Cumberland Ridge to Home Plate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E12), Art. No.: E12S39. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JE003195

Article

Schröder C, Rodionov DS, McCoy TJ, Jolliff BL, Gellert R, Nittler LR, Farrand WH, Johnson JR, Ruff SW, Ashley JW, Mittlefehldt DW, Herkenhoff KE, Fleischer I, Haldemann AFC & Klingelhoefer G (2008) Meteorites on Mars observed with the Mars Exploration Rovers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E6), Art. No.: E06S22. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JE002990

Article

McSween HY, Ruff SW, Morris RV, Gellert R, Klingelhoefer G, Christensen PR, McCoy TJ, Ghosh A, Moersch JM, Cohen BA, Rogers AD, Schröder C, Squyres SW, Crisp JA & Yen AS (2008) Mineralogy of volcanic rocks in Gusev Crater, Mars: Reconciling Mössbauer, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer, and Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E6), Art. No.: E06S04. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JE002970

Article

Fleischer I, Klingelhoefer G, Schröder C, Morris RV, Hahn M, Rodionov DS, Gellert R & de Souza Jr PA (2008) Depth selective Mossbauer spectroscopy: Analysis and simulation of 6.4 keV and 14.4 keV spectra obtained from rocks at Gusev Crater, Mars, and layered laboratory samples. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 113 (E6), Art. No.: E06S21. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JE003022

Article

Pullan D, Westall F, Hofmann B, Parnell J, Cockell CS, Edwards HGM, Villar SEJ, Schröder C, Cressey G, Marinangeli L, Richter L & Klingelhoefer G (2008) Identification of morphological biosignatures in martian analogue field specimens using in situ planetary instrumentation. Astrobiology, 8 (1), pp. 119-156. https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2006.0037

Meeting Abstract

Klingelhöfer G, Morris R, Rodionov DS, Schröder C, Fleischer I, Yen AS & Ming DW (2007) Jarosite and goethite identified by Mossbauer spectroscopy on the surface of Mars: Mineralogical evidence for aqueous processes. 17th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference Cologne, Germany August 2007, Cologne, 19/08/2007 - 24/08/3007. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71 (S15), pp. A494-A494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.06.019

Article

Clark BC, Arvidson RE, Gellert R, Morris RV, Ming DW, Richter L, Ruff SW, Michalski JR, Farrand WH, Yen AS, Herkenhoff KE, Li R, Squyres SW, Schröder C, Klingelhoefer G & Bell III JF (2007) Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 112 (E6), Art. No.: E06S01. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002756

Article

Squyres SW, Aharonson O, Clark BC, Cohen BA, Crumpler LS, de Souza Jr PA, Farrand WH, Gellert R, Grant JA, Grotzinger JP, Haldemann AFC, Johnson JR, Klingelhoefer G, Lewis KW & Schröder C (2007) Pyroclastic activity at home plate in Gusev Crater, Mars. Science, 316 (5825), pp. 738-742. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1139045

Article

Morris RV, Klingelhoefer G, Schröder C, Rodionov DS, Yen AS, Ming DW, de Souza Jr PA, Wdowiak TJ, Fleischer I, Gellert R, Bernhardt B, Bonnes U, Cohen BA, Evlanov EN & Foh J (2006) Mossbauer mineralogy of rock, soil, and dust at Meridiani Planum, Mars: Opportunity's journey across sulfate-rich outcrop, basaltic sand and dust, and hematite lag deposits. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E12), Art. No.: E12S15. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002791

Article

Yen AS, Mittlefehldt DW, McLennan SM, Gellert R, Bell III JF, McSween HY, Ming DW, McCoy TJ, Morris RV, Golombek M, Economou TET, Madsen MB, Wdowiak TJ, Clark BC, Jolliff BL, Schröder C, Brueckner J, Zipfel J & Squyres SW (2006) Nickel on Mars: Constraints on meteoritic material at the surface. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E12), Art. No.: E12S11. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002797

Article

Squyres SW, Arvidson RE, Bollen DM, Bell III JF, Brueckner J, Cabrol NA, Calvin WM, Carr MH, Christensen PR, Clark BC, Crumpler LS, DesMarais DJ, d'Uston C, Economou TET & Schröder C (2006) Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle crater to Purgatory ripple. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E12), Art. No.: E12S12. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002771

Article

Arvidson RE, Squyres SW, Anderson RC, Bell III JF, Blaney D, Brueckner J, Cabrol NA, Calvin WM, Carr MH, Christensen PR, Clark BC, Crumpler LS, DesMarais DJ, d'Uston C & Schröder C (2006) Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater: Landing site to Backstay Rock in the Columbia Hills. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E2), Art. No.: S01. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JE002499

Article

Ming DW, Mittlefehldt DW, Morris RV, Golden DC, Gellert R, Yen AS, Clark BC, Squyres SW, Farrand WH, Ruff SW, Arvidson RE, Klingelhoefer G, McSween HY, Rodionov DS, Schröder C, de Souza Jr PA & Wang A (2006) Geochemical and mineralogical indicators for aqueous processes in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E2), Art. No.: E02S12. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JE002560

Article

Morris RV, Klingelhoefer G, Schröder C, Rodionov DS, Yen AS, Ming DW, de Souza Jr PA, Fleischer I, Wdowiak TJ, Gellert R, Bernhardt B, Evlanov EN, Zubkov BV, Foh J & Bonnes U (2006) Mössbauer mineralogy of rock, soil, and dust at Gusev crater, Mars: Spirit's journey through weakly altered olivine basalt on the plains and pervasively altered basalt in the Columbia Hills. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E2), Art. No.: E02S13. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JE002584

Article

McSween HY, Wyatt MB, Gellert R, Bell III JF, Morris RV, Herkenhoff KE, Crumpler LS, Milam KA, Stockstill KR, Tornabene LL, Arvidson RE, Bartlett PW, Blaney D, Cabrol NA & Schröder C (2006) Characterization and petrologic interpretation of olivine-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 111 (E2), Art. No.: S10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JE002477

See all 113 outputs

Teaching

Teaching

Director of Learning & Teaching, Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences

Programme Director: Environmental Science BSc (honours); Environmental Science & Mathematics BSc (honours); Environmental Science & Politics BSc (honours)

Undergraduate modules:
ENVU1BP - Building Planet Earth
ENVU6EA - Methods and Application in Environmental Sciences (module coordinator)
ENVU9PR - Environmental Science Honours Project
SCIU3LS - Practical Science Skills: Laboratory skills

Postgraduate modules:
ENMPG18 - Dissertation
ENMPG30 - Dissertation
ENVU9PP – Environment Sector Placement
EPLPPG3 - Planetary Exploration (module coordinator)

Research programmes

Research centres/groups

Research themes