Article

Diverse Lithologies and Alteration Events on the Rim of Noachian-Aged Endeavour Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In-Situ Compositional Evidence

Citation

Mittlefehldt D, Gellert R, VanBommel S, Ming D, Yen A, Clark BC, Morris R, Schröder C, Crumpler LS, Grant JA, Jolliff BL, Arvidson RE, Farrand WH, Herkenhoff KE, Bell J, Cohen B, Klingelhöfer G, Schrader C & Rice J (2018) Diverse Lithologies and Alteration Events on the Rim of Noachian-Aged Endeavour Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In-Situ Compositional Evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123 (5), pp. 1255-1306. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005474

Abstract
We report the results of geological studies by the Opportunity Mars rover on the Endeavour Crater rim. Four major units occur in the region (oldest to youngest): the Matijevic, Shoemaker, Grasberg and Burns formations. The Matijevic formation, consisting of fine-grained clastic sediments, is the only pre-Endeavour-impact unit and might be part of the Noachian etched units of Meridiani Planum. The Shoemaker formation is a heterogeneous polymict impact breccia; its lowermost member incorporates material eroded from the underlying Matijevic formation. The Shoemaker formation is a close analog to the Bunte Breccia of the Ries Crater, although the average clast sizes are substantially larger in the latter. The Grasberg formation is a 46 thin, fine-grained, homogeneous sediment unconformably overlying the Shoemaker formation, and likely formed as an airfall deposit of unknown areal extent. The Burns formation sandstone overlies the Grasberg, but compositions of the two units are distinct; there is no evidence that the Grasberg formation is a fine-grained subfacies of the Burns formation. The rocks along the Endeavour Crater rim were affected by at least four episodes of alteration in the Noachian and Early Hesperian: (i) vein formation and alteration of pre-impact Matijevic formation rocks; (ii) low-water/rock alteration along the disconformity between the Matijevic and Shoemaker formations; (iii) alteration of the Shoemaker formation along fracture zones; and (iv) differential mobilization of Fe and Mn, and CaSO4-vein formation in the Grasberg and Shoemaker formations. Episodes (ii) and (iii) possibly occurred together, but (i) and (iv) are distinct from either of these.

Keywords
Mars Exploration Rover; Endeavour Crater; geochemistry; impact breccia; Mars alteration

Journal
Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets: Volume 123, Issue 5

StatusPublished
FundersScience & Technology Facilities Council
Publication date31/05/2018
Publication date online20/02/2018
Date accepted by journal08/02/2018
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/26700
PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union (AGU)
ISSN2169-9097