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Dr Sally Foster

Senior Lecturer

History University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA

Dr Sally Foster

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About me

I work in Stirling's History, Heritage and Politics Division as a Senior Lecturer in Heritage and Conservation. I am a member of our cross-Faculty Environment, Heritage and Policy Centre and an active contributor to the University's Cultural Heritage research programme.

I spent over 20 years working in cultural heritage - mainly for Historic Scotland - before returning to academia in 2010. Graduating from University College London with a degree in Medieval Archaeology, I completed my archaeology PhD at the University of Glasgow. Before joining Stirling in 2014, I was an archaeology lecturer at Glasgow and Aberdeen universities.

My external duties include Chairing the National Committee on Carved Stones in Scotland. I am a Trustee of Kilmartin Museum Company Ltd and of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. In the past I have been Secretary of the Medieval Europe Research Community (2013-16) and Hon. Editor of the international journal Medieval Archaeology (2007-2013). I am a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and the Society of Antiquaries of London, and a Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists.


St Andrews Preservation Trust Murray Prize for History 2015

Prize for Foster et al 2014

Event / Presentation

9 May (cancelled due to pandemic): talk to Pictish Arts Society conference


10 March: lecture to Stirling Field and Archaeological Society

Chair: Society of Antiquaries meeting, Edinburgh, 14 October 2020
Creating Scotland: Assembling a Medieval Kingdom” an in-conversation event with Hamish Torrie FSAScot, Dr Heather Pulliam FSAScot and Dr Adrian Maldonado FSAScot, chaired by Dr Sally Foster FSAScot.

June (cancelled due to pandemic): public talk about St John's Cross replica


7 May (postponed due to pandemic): Masterclass on early medieval sculpture
Historic Environment Scotland

Engine Shed, Stirling

17 October (postponed due to pandemic): talk to Appin Historical Society

Port Appin

3 March (cancelled due to UCU strike) - First Millennium Group Seminar: My Life as a Replica: St John' Cross, Iona

University of Glasgow

2 October: Talk to Mull and Iona Historical Society

Chair: V&A Celebrating Reproductions: Past, Present and Future conference…ultural-heritage
17-19 January 2019, V&A London

My Life as a Replica: understanding the values and meanings of the St John’s Cross, Iona, from creation to present

17 October 2019 seminar to University of Edinburgh Art History Seminar

Displaying early medieval sculpture
University of York and Durham University
Invited speaker. The Art of Anglo-Saxon Sculpture: Its Presentation, Curation and Care King’s Manor, University of York 27th-28th of September 2019 For: Worked in Stone: Completing the Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture (Durham/York)

Invited keynote, Oxford: My Life as a Replica: the role of materiality and craft in letting a replica 'speak'
University of Oxford
Keynote lecture at Lasting Impressions 2019. Making and Re-Making the Replica. AHRC-funded Study Day. Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford. Available on YouTube. See also @lastingimpression_ #lastingimpressions19

ECCLES project

Summary to the Scottish Medievalists 62nd Conference, Westerwood Hotel, Cumbernauld

Invited keynote, Cambridge: What replicas can tell us about authenticity, if we let them speak

Making it Real. Historical Authenticity in Museums and Collections in the UK, Germany, and Europe, Cambridge, 3-5 December 2019

Intangible Matters: Mackintosh, Authenticity & Conservation
University of Glasgow and Glasgow School of Art

Respondee at a one-day symposium on 20 October 2018, Kelvin Halls, Glasgow, highlighting the recent conservation projects on Mackintosh Heritage. Jointly organised by The Glasgow School of Art and The Hunterian, University of Glasgow.

Untold stories: the biography of a replica
University of East Anglia

12 November 2018 presentation at University of East Anglia's Medieval History Seminar programme

The story of Iona's St John Cross. Workshop with Iona Primary School…8cdd057f67835dd6
This full-day Workshop, co-presented with Dr Stuart Jeffrey of Glasgow School of Art, combined outreach for the Concrete and Non-Concrete project with ethically-approved research into children's perspectives on Iona's high crosses, particularly the story of the St John's Cross replica. On 23 February, we followed this up with a walk to the crosses in Iona Abbey with the whole school.

St John's Cross Iona: a case study in the contemporary value and authenticity of replicas at heritage sites. HES staff lunchtime seminar
Historic Environment Scotland

Presentation of the preliminary results of the 2017 fieldwork for Concrete and Non-concrete: an Ethnographic Study of the Contemporary Value and Authenticity of Historic Replicas project (funded by Royal Society of Edinburgh and Historic Environment Scotland). The event combines outreach with seeking feedback from heritage practitioners in advance of publication.

Participant in Round Table on 'How have perceptions of Iona evolved since Kenneth Clark’s Civilisation?'. BBC Civilisations Festival
Friends of Govan Old
A two-part event presented as part of the BBC Civilisations Festival. Dr Ewan Campbell (Archaeology, University of Glasgow) delivered the Reverend Tom Davidson Kelly lecture, titled ‘New Light on Columba’s Monastery on Iona’, at the Friends of Govan Old Annual meeting. Afterwards, Dr Heather Pulliam (History of Art, University of Edinburgh) lead a round table discussion on the question: ‘How have perceptions of Iona evolved since Kenneth Clark’s Civilisation?’ Panellists: Dr Katherine Forsyth, Peter Yeoman, Dr Ewan Campbell, Dr Adrian Maldonado, Dr Sally Foster. This was attended by c. 50 people.

Listen to the Stones: Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland. HES staff lunchtime seminar
Historic Environment Scotland
Presentation of the results of the Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland project, and promotion of its resources, including website and Listen to the Stones booklet. Targeted at relevance to heritage practitioners with a view to how they can use it themselves, and help others to do so. Co-presented with Dr Susan Buckham, University of Stirling, and Dr Katherine Forsyth, University of Glasgow

‘I can’t think of anything more worthwhile doing’: contemporary attitudes to the Iona St John’s Cross replica. Public lecture as part of Concrete and Non-Concrete project

Outreach, this public lecture, presented the preliminary results of the 2017 fieldwork for the Concrete and Non-Concrete: An Ethnographic Study of the Contemporary Value and Authenticity of Historic Replicas project. Dr Stuart Jeffrey of Glasgow School of Art presented co-produced digital models of carved stones in Iona, including what the school children had produced in a Workshop the day before. With kind permission of Murdo MacKenzie, we presented his 1970 cinefilm of the creation and erection of the replica.

Concrete and non-concrete: an exploration of how replicas ‘work’, acquire meaning and can develop storytelling potential
Lecture at Association of Critical Heritage Studies conference, Hangzhou, China, 31 Aug-6 Sep 2018 in Session 069.

Listen to the Stones. Rock-art, public engagement and the future of the Cochno Stone workshop
University of Glasgow

Short introduction to Listen to the Stones, and the Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland project

The Scottish experience of the place of value. Global Challenges in Cultural Heritage
University of Stirling and Historic Environment Scotland…ltural-heritage/
This paper offered an introduction to the Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland project, in which understanding value has been central. It promoted the wider significance of this project, inviting wider critical review by heritage professionals and other users of this new model for a research framework, which is structured around the heritage cycle /  a government strategy for the historic environment. See Framework at, Section 1.4 for the approach taken. The paper was presented on behalf of the Framework's co-authors, Dr Katherine Forsyth (University of Glasgow), Dr Susan buckham (University of Stirling) and Dr Stuart Jeffrey (Glasgow School of Art).
The paper was supported by a poster.

Scottish material evidence. Early Christian Churches and Landscapes: Academic Conference 1
University of Chester
First event as part of ECCLES AHRC Network.

Concrete and non-concrete: an ethnographic study of the contemporary value and authenticity of historic replicas. 8th International Insular Art Conference
University of Glasgow…nces/insularart/
Poster introducing ongoing research project with Professor Sian Jones, funded by Royal Society of Edinburgh, supported by Historic Environment Scotland

Material diasporas: an island perspective on the place and value of replicas. Our Islands, Our Past
University of the Highlands and Islands…conference-2017/
The paper, presently jointly with Professor Sian Jones, presented preliminary findings of the Concrete and non-concrete: an ethnographic study of the contemporary value and authenticity of historic replicas. It was accompanied by a poster.

Expiscation! George Buist and the early duplication of Pictish monuments and artefacts in Fife. Pictish Arts Society Annual Conference
Pictish Arts Society

Launch of 'Listen to the Stones'; Workshop: Talking Stones - Carved Stones Research Framework. Scotland's Community Heritage Conference
Historic Environment Scotland…d-contributions/
Launch of 'Listen to the Stones', an initiative to promote wider audience engagement with Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: A Research Framework. Workshop to explore community interests in working with carved stones in the context of the Framework.

Inchinnan: releasing the potential. Launch of project '597 St Conval to All Hallows 1420 years and counting'
Inchinnan Historical Interest Group…l-interest-group
Short presentation on the significance of Inchinnan in the early medieval period and the potential of its surviving archaeology to answer important questions. Reference was made to the Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: A Research Framework, the objectives of which the All Hallows Project will contribute towards.

Picts, Gaels and Scots: What's new?. Public lecture
Tullibody History Group

Public lecture to Tullibody History Society

Authentic replicas: the untold stories. Museums - Places of Authenticity
Leibniz Research Alliances…uthenticity.html
An international conference of the Leibniz Research Alliance "Historical Authenticity" Together with:  Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum - Archaeological Research Institute, Mainz, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum , Deutsches Museum, München,  National Maritime Museum - Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Museum für Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Senckenberg Nature Research Society - World of Biodiversity, Frankfurt am Main, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig - Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Bonn, Knowledge Media Research Center - Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Tübingen

Celtic collections: the curatorial appetite for 'Celtic crosses' in nineteenth-century Scotland. Celtic Revival: Authenticity and Identity conference
University of Edinburgh and British Museum…spx?eventId=2642
The conference examined the Celtic Revival as a rewriting, recreation and re-imagining of the past, from the medieval period to the twentieth century. Leading art and design historians, archaeologists and curators discussed the themes of authenticity and innovation, the role of the copy, cultural heritage and reimagined identities. It was linked to the Celts: Art and Identity exhibition at the British Museum / National Museums Scotland.

Replication of things: the case for composite biographical approaches. Victorians Institute Conference 2016, Raleigh, North Carolina
Victorians Institute & Journal
From the late 1830s until the end of the long nineteenth-century, museums in Scotland acquired collections of plaster casts of local early medieval sculpture, sometimes referred to as ‘Celtic crosses'. A similar trend is seen in Ireland, Wales and the Isle of Man, with only a few native examples being manufactured for the South Kensington / Victoria and Albert Museum. The production of these replicas embodied considerable energy and embeds many stories because the motivations for the production, and their subsequent trajectories, vary immensely. The phenomenon also contrasts with the more familiar production of replicas of classical, later medieval and Renaissance sculpture. A case study will introduce the evolving motivations behind the creation of the collections in what was the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland and the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art (now the National Museums of Scotland), contrasting this to what was happening in the provincial museums.

Replicas of early medieval sculpture. The art and science of replication. Copies and copying in the interdisciplinary museum, National Museums Scotland
National Museums Scotland

NMS Collections Research Seminar. An informal discussion of the role of models across disciplinary boundaries. Organised by Dr Sam Alberti.

PI for project; Chair. Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: Workshop 1. Digital recording of carved stones for research. Where are we and where can we go? Glasgow School of Art
University of Glasgow…nd/rseworkshop1/

PI for project; Chair. Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: Workshop 4. ScARF for carved stones in Scotland, University of Stirling…nd/rseworkshop4/

A 'cemetery of bric-a-brac' or a 'nursery of living thoughts'? Why replicas of archaeological material culture matter. Glasgow Archaeology Seminars Autumn 2014
University of Glasgow

Artistic Legacies. European Association of Archaeologists Conference 2015, Glasgow
University of Glasgow and European Association of Archaeologists
LV30 ARTISTIC LEGACIES JOSEPH BLACK - ROOM 407 Chair: Dr. Sally Foster / Organiser: Dr. Sally Foster
1330 - 1340 Introduction 1340 - 1400 Art and Archaeology: a happy marriage?, Valdez-Tullett, J (University of Southampton)
1400 - 1420 Archaeology and History of Art: Different Methodologies for the Common Purpose: study of Russian arms and armor, Zhilin, A (State Historical Museum)
1420 - 1440 The stylistic unity between ornamentation of adornments from hoards and architectural white stone carving of Old Rus, Zhilina, N (Institute of Archаeology RAS)
1440 - 1500 Science dedicated to the study of archaeological textiles : the example of a workshop in Brandes-en-Oisans (12th-14th c, France) and Yakuts graves (18th-19th c, Siberia), Retournard, E (Université de Bourgogne, UMR 6298 ARTeHIS); Saunier, I
1500 - 1520 Cultural Heritage in an interactive landscape, Angeletaki, A (Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Benardou, A; Papaki, E
1520 - 1530 Discussion Poster Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland, Foster, S (University of Stirling)

Discovery, recovery, replication and display: representing the medieval in nineteenth-century Scottish museums. European Association of Archaeologists Annual Conference 2015, Glasgow
European Association of Archaeologists
Medieval Europe Research Committee Forum: one of three speakers.

Early Historic Argyll: Setting the Scene. Unfolding Argyll's Archaeological Story: Research Framework Symposium
Kilmartin Museum

Two-day symposium porviding unique and important opportunity to bring together all those researching the archaeology and history of Argyll. The event is primarily for research specialists, representatives from local history societies and heritage groups who are interested in defining a research strategy for Argyll.

Organiser (PI) and Chair. Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: Workshop 2. At the door of the church? Research and carved stones at ecclesiastical sites, Govan Old Church…nd/rseworkshop2/

Smashing casts: replication of early medieval sculpture as a case study in the fragility of cultural value. Destroy the Copy! II, Berlin
Freie University Berlin, Cornell University and Archaeological Institute of America
Destroy the Copy II Sponsored by Free University Berlin, Cornell University Thursday, October 8, 2015 - 8:00am to Saturday, October 10, 2015 - 5:00pm Location:Freie Universität Berlin Berlin Germany In the last decades research on plaster cast collections of ancient sculpture has developed into a sub-discipline of classical archaeology and reception studies. A few exceptions aside the topic is usually approached from an archival point of view. It remains centered on thehistory of the collections,their formation and development and how they served as a medium for circulating and establishing the canon of antique sculpture and European art. Two larger fields of inquiry, however, have so far been neglected:first, the specific process and reasons for the systematic destruction or neglect of cast collections; second, the use, display and reception of plaster casts outside of Europe, most notably in areas which were not familiar with Western (replicated) antiquity. These are the topics our conference wants to concentrate on. At first sight seemingly unrelated, they combine a view from the so-called margins or periphery, prompting questions of how casts and the values they reified have been challenged, de-contextualized and transformed. In addition, we hope to get a better understanding of which aspects in the reception of cast collections including their rise and decline were a global or a local phenomenon.

Eigg's early church archaeology in context. The St Donnan's Seminar, Eigg
Heritiage Lottery Fund

Community-organised event, with HLF funding

Picts, Gaels and Scots: What's new?. Landscape Encounters II: Exploring Environmental and Heritage Histories of Scotland

Lecture as part of Landscape Encounters II , the second in a series of free public lectures designed to showcase some of the past and current research projects undertaken by the staff at the Centre for Environment, Heritage and Policy at the University of Stirling to a wider audience.

Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland. European Association of Archaeologists Conference 2015, Glasgow
University of Glasgow and European Association of Archaeologists
This poster summarises the progress of an ongoing strategic effort to link, inspire, mobilise and help direct diffuse communities with an interest in and responsibility for carved stones by creating a Scottish Archaeology Research Framework for carved stones. The project is supported by the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Historic Scotland, the National Committee on Carved Stones in Scotland (NCCSS) and others, led by Dr Sally Foster (PI: University of Stirling) and Dr Katherine Forsyth (CI: University of Glasgow). Carved stones - prehistoric rock art, Roman, early medieval, later medieval and post-Reformation sculpture, architectural sculpture, architectural fragments and gravestones and memorials - include some of Scotland's most characteristic monuments and some of its most significant contributions to European art and culture. There is a general under-appreciation of the significance of these carved stones and the threats to them. Analysis by the NCCSS in 2013 suggests addressing the underlying causes of this requires targeted research into what carved stones can tell us about both the past (their historical context) and the present (social value, national and community identity, etc.). Research is needed also into curatorial issues including the identification of best practice. As both ‘monument' and ‘artefact', carved stones often transgress traditional curatorial and disciplinary lines - they are prone to ‘fall through the gaps' and thereby suffer intellectual and curatorial neglect. Understanding this rich resource is an interdisciplinary undertaking drawing on both humanities and sciences, and involving not only the academic community per se but also the fragmented heritage and stewardship sectors.

PI for project; Chair.. Future Thinking on Carved Stones in Scotland: Workshop 3. New thinking on carved stones in Scotland.…nd/rseworkshop3/

A 'cemetery of bric-a-brac' or a 'nursery of living thoughts'? Why replicas of archaeological material culture matter. Centre for Environment, History and Policy Seminars

CARE Isles: ECCLES. Pre-Romanesque architecture in Scotland in its European context
. European Association of Archaeologists Annual Conference 2014, Istanbul

European Association of Archaeologists

The Thing about Replicas: Why Historic Replicas of Archaeological Material Matter. Mini-symposium on 19th-Century Replication and the Prehistory of Virtual Reality, Fort Worth, Texas

"19th Century Replication and the Prehistory of Virtual Reality," a mini-symposium, will take place 2:30-4:30 p.m., Nov. 7, 2014 (Debate Chamber, Scharbauer Hall). Funded by TCU's Research and Creative Activity Fund, it brings together an archaeologist, art historian, cognitive psychologist, and literary scholar to engage in interdisciplinary exploration of 19-century forms of replication that look ahead to our era of digitization, holograms, simulacra, genetic engineering, and more. See further details below and in the attached abstracts.
Sally Foster, The Thing about Replicas: Why Historic Replicas of Archaeological Material Matter A medieval archaeologist by training, Dr. Sally Foster worked in cultural heritage management for around 20 years. Returning to academia in 2010, she joined the University of Stirling as Lecturer in Heritage and Conservation in 2014. Her research is interdisciplinary in nature, cutting across cultural heritage management, archaeology, history, art history and museology, with a particular interest in nineteenth-century replication of early medieval material culture. In addition to recent articles in Journal of the History of Collections and Journal of Victorian Culture, the third edition of her book Picts, Gaels and Scots has just appeared.
Julie Codell, 19th-Century Replicas in Art: Auras, Aesthetics and Economics Julie Codell is Professor of Art History at Arizona State University and affiliate faculty in English, Gender Studies, Film and Media Studies and Asian Studies. She wrote The Victorian Artist: Artists' Life Writings in Britain, ca. 1870-1910 (Cambridge 2003; paperback rev. ed. 2012) and edited Transculturation in British Art, 1770-1930 (2012), Power and Resistance: The Delhi Coronation Durbars (2012), The Political Economy of Art (2008), Genre, Gender, Race, and World Cinema (2007), Imperial Co-Histories (2003), and co-edited with L. Brake, Encounters in the Victorian Press (2004), and with D. S. Macleod, Orientalism Transposed: The Impact of the Colonies on British Culture (1998), now being translated into Japanese (2015).
Ryan D. Tweney, The Origins of Replication in Science Ryan D. Tweney received his BA from the University of Chicago and his MA and Ph.D. from Wayne State University in Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics. In 1970, he joined the faculty of Bowling Green State University, and has been Emeritus Professor of Psychology since 2005. His research interests have centered on understanding and explaining the nature of scientific thinking and has included laboratory work, cognitive-historical analyses (especially of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell), and the replication of historically important scientific experiments. His publications include 6 books (5 edited or co-edited), 122 articles and book chapters, and numerous reviews, conference presentations, and lectures.
Linda K. Hughes, Tennyson's The Princess (1847-1853) and Literary Replicas Linda K. Hughes, Addie Levy Professor of Literature at TCU in Fort Worth, Texas, specializes in Victorian literature and culture with special interests in historical media studies (illustrated poetry, periodicals, serial fiction); gender and women's studies; and transnationality. She is the author of The Cambridge Introduction to Victorian Poetry (2010), Graham R.: Rosamund Marriott Watson, Woman of Letters (2005, winner of the Colby Prize), The Manyfacèd Glass: Tennyson's Dramatic Monologues (1987); co-author of Victorian Publishing and Mrs. Gaskell's Work (1999) and The Victorian Serial (1991); and editor or co-editor of several volumes including A Feminist Reader: Feminist Thought from Sappho to Satrapi (4 vol., 2013).

Picts, Gaels and Scots - What's New?. Appin Historical Society lecture programme 2014-15
Appin Historical Society
Lecture on new developments in understanding the Picts, Gaels and Scots, following publication of 3rd editon of 'Picts, Gaels and Scots. Early Historic Scotland'.

Embodied energies, embedded stories: releasing the potential of casts of early medieval sculptures. Making Histories: The Sixth International Insular Art Conference 2011…xth-insular-art/

Physical evidence for the early church in Scotland. Buildings for Worship in Britain: Celtic and Anglo-Saxon
University of Oxford…_Application.pdf

Other Academic Activities

Workshop organiser: 2 April 2020 - for stewards and tour guides on Iona
Historic Environment Scotland

Workshop co-organiser: Historic replicas in north-west Europe: current research, future prospect

Historic replicas in north-west Europe: current research, future prospects (Foster and Jones), University of Stirling, 8 January 2020.

Workshop co-organiser: Replicas in museums and heritage contexts: putting theory into practice
National Museums Scotland and International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)

SGSAH Heritage Hub event. Partnership with National Museum of Scotland and ICOMOS (Foster & Jones). 28-29 November 2019.

Professional qualification

Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Authority
Higher Education Academy
Fellowship reference number: PR142119.

Research programmes

Research centres/groups

Research themes

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