Dr Clemens Hoffmann (DPhil International Relations, University of Sussex) joined the Division of History and Politics in 2016 from Bilkent University, Ankara in Turkey. His research interests include Political Ecology of the Middle East, Political Economy of Turkish Foreign Policy and Historical Sociology of International Relations. He currently works on a project exploring the “Geo-Political Ecology of the Middle East” criticising conventional notions of resource scarcity and abundance as environmentally deterministic. His research proposes a careful historicisation of the geo-political, postcolonial and political economic conditions of possibility within which developmental states emerged as the main arbiters of society-nature relations. A co-authored book project comparing the ‘Divided Environments’ of Israel-Palestine, Cyprus, Sudan and Syria will be out with CUP in 2022. The book demonstrates the complex social (rather than purely environmental) causes and consequences of conflicts. In all his work, Dr Hoffmann understands "nature" as the socially animated circulation of capital, energy and matter across time and space. Social Ecology is, therefore, better understood as an intrinsically political process, rather than an apolitical, pristine 'nature' that never was.