This research seeks to uncover the multiple sources of Turkey's recent attempts at independent international (geo)political and (geo)economic policy formation. Long seen as an indispensable strategic partner of the US and the Western Bloc, Turkey is now increasingly playing a more independent role and aligning itself with non-Western
states in response to a series of developments under the current leadership. While there is research within Foreign Policy Analysis, International Political Economy, Political Geography, Political Sociology and Political Science, a truly multi-disciplinary analysis of Turkey's newly acquired independence is yet to emerge. This project proposes to uncover the multiple sources of Turkey's rise and current crisis within a 'strategies of reproduction' framework. This project will develop a coherent historical sociological narrative as an independent combined IPEFPA approach, offering an advanced theoretical perspective on a political economy of geopolitical conjuncture. This will be central to understanding not only Turkey but the global crisis in general.