I received my Doctorial degree from University of Cape Town, in the Physiology of Exercise examining various manipulations on neural fatigue.
I have been at the University of Stirling since 2002 and am currently Associate Dean of Research for The Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport
Outside interests include moutainbiking, snowboarding, hill running and banjo playing
Follow me on twitter: https://twitter.com/goose_angus
Current research focuses on neuromuscular control in clinical and athletic populations. This has involved establishing neuromuscular recruitment strategies in people with Multiple Sclerosis and heart disease patients before and during rehabilitation programmes. Similar neuromuscular tests funded by UK Sport have also been used on elite athletes during strength training programmes to help determine the level of fatigue occurred. More recently research has been done examining the effects of sub concussive impacts on cortico-spinal excitability. Also, commercial based work has led to research on topical medicines for treating soft tissue injury. Many of these areas of work are continuing with some in collaboration with Universities of Northumbria, Cape Town and College Dublin and governing bodies such as sportscotland Institute of Sport and UK Sport. Most of these collaborations have resulted in publication of peer reviewed academic journal papers.
Kwiecien SY, McHugh MP, Goodall S, Hicks KM, Hunter AM & Howatson G (2019) Exploring the Efficacy of a Safe Cryotherapy Alternative: Physiological Temperature Changes from Cold-Water Immersion versus Prolonged Cooling of Phase-Change Material. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14 (9), p. 1288–1296. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0763
Di Virgilio T, Hunter A & Ietswaart M (2019) How routine sparring can cause short-term impairment to boxers’ brains. The Conversation. 04.10.2019. https://theconversation.com/how-routine-sparring-can-cause-short-term-impairment-to-boxers-brains-123820
Di Virgilio TG, Ietswaart M, Wilson L, Donaldson DI & Hunter AM (2019) Understanding the Consequences of Repetitive Subconcussive Head Impacts in Sport: Brain Changes and Dampened Motor Control Are Seen After Boxing Practice. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, Art. No.: 294. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00294
Shore C, Hubbard G, Gorely T, Hunter A, Polson R & Galloway SD (2019) Insufficient Reporting of Factors Associated with Exercise Referral Scheme Uptake, Attendance, and Adherence: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 16 (8), pp. 667-676. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2018-0341
Clark DR, Lambert MI, Grigson C & Hunter AM (2019) Increased strength is associated with lower trunk muscle activation during loaded back squats and dynamic body weight jumps. Translational Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1002/tsm2.97
Clark DR, Lambert M & Hunter A (2019) Trunk muscle activation in the back and hack squat at the same relative loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33 (Supplement 1), pp. S60-S69. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002144
Dugdale JH, Arthur CA, Sanders D & Hunter AM (2019) Reliability and validity of field-based fitness tests in youth soccer players. European Journal of Sport Science, 19 (6), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1556739
Hunter A (2019) Authors' Reply to Valenzuela et al: Comment on: "Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties by Radial Displacement: The Case for Tensiomyography". Commentary on: Valenzuela PL, Sánchez-Martínez G, Torrontegi E, Vázquez-Carrión J, Montalvo Z, Lucia A. Comment on: “Assessment of skeletal muscle contractile properties by radial displacement: the case for tensiomyography” (letter). Sports Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0989-y.. Sports Medicine, 49 (6), pp. 977-978. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0988-z
Dugdale JH, Hunter A, Di Virgilio T, Macgregor LJ & Hamilton DL (2019) Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33 (2), pp. 327-336. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001853
Macgregor LJ, Fairweather MM, Bennett RM & Hunter AM (2018) The Effect of Foam Rolling for Three Consecutive Days on Muscular Efficiency and Range of Motion. Sports Medicine - Open, 4 (1), Art. No.: 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0141-4
Macgregor LJ, Hunter A, Orizio C, Fairweather MM & Ditroilo M (2018) Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties by Radial Displacement: The Case for Tensiomyography. Sports Medicine, 48 (7), pp. 1607-1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0912-6
Clark DR, Lambert MI & Hunter AM (2018) Contemporary perspectives of core stability training for dynamic athletic performance: a survey of athletes, coaches, sports science and sports medicine practitioners. Sports Medicine - Open, 4 (1), Art. No.: 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0150-3
Hunter AM, Grigson C & Wade A (2018) Influence of topically applied menthol cooling gel on soft tissue thermodynamics and arterial and cutaneous blood flow at rest. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 13 (3), pp. 483-492. https://spts.org/docs/default-source/v13n3/ijspt-13_3-13-hunter_abs.pdf?sfvrsn=51be864_2; https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20180483
Macgregor LJ & Hunter AM (2018) High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise. PLoS ONE, 13 (4), Art. No.: e0195051. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195051
Newell M, Wallis GA, Hunter A, Tipton K & Galloway SD (2018) Metabolic Responses to Carbohydrate Ingestion during Exercise: Associations between Carbohydrate Dose and Endurance Performance. Nutrients, 10 (1), Art. No.: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010037
Martin-Rodriguez S, Loturco I, Hunter A, Rodriguez-Ruiz D & Munguia-Izquierdo D (2017) Reliability and measurement error of tensiomyography to assess mechanical muscle function: A systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31 (12), pp. 3524-3536. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002250
Kennedy P, Macgregor LJ, Barnhill E, Johnson C, Perrins M, Hunter A, Brown C, van Beek EJR & Roberts N (2017) MR elastography measurement of the effect of passive warmup prior to eccentric exercise on thigh muscle mechanical properties. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 46 (4), pp. 1115-1127. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25642
Da Boit M, Hunter A & Gray SR (2017) Fit with good fat? The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on exercise performance. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 66, pp. 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2016.10.007
Balshaw T, Pahar M, Chesham R, Macgregor LJ & Hunter A (2017) Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload. Physiological Reports, 5 (2), Art. No.: e13111. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13111
Di Virgilio TG, Hunter A, Wilson L, Stewart W, Goodall S, Howatson G, Donaldson DI & Ietswaart M (2016) Evidence for Acute Electrophysiological and Cognitive Changes Following Routine Soccer Heading. EBioMedicine, 13, pp. 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.10.029
Ietswaart M, Hunter A & Di Virgilio T (2016) How we discovered that heading a football causes impairment of brain function. The Conversation. 24.10.2016. https://theconversation.com/how-we-discovered-that-heading-a-football-causes-impairment-of-brain-function-67468
Macgregor LJ, Ditroilo M, Smith IJ, Fairweather MM & Hunter A (2016) Reduced Radial Displacement of the Gastrocnemius Medialis Muscle After Electrically Elicited Fatigue. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 25 (3), pp. 241-247. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2014-0325
Hunter A, Howatson G & Hamilton DL (2016) Athletes, you’re doing weight training all wrong. The Conversation. 29.07.2016. https://theconversation.com/athletes-youre-doing-weight-training-all-wrong-62794; https://theconversation.com/athletes-youre-doing-weight-training-all-wrong-62794
Clark DR, Lambert M & Hunter A (2016) Reliability of Trunk Muscle Electromyography in the Loaded Back Squat Exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 37 (6), pp. 448-456. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1569366
Howatson G, Brandon R & Hunter A (2016) The Response To, and Recovery From Maximum Strength and Power Training in Elite Track and Field Athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11 (3), pp. 356-362. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0235
Brandon R, Howatson G, Strachan F & Hunter A (2015) Neuromuscular response differences to power vs strength back squat exercise in elite athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 25 (5), pp. 630-639. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12289
Newell M, Hunter A, Lawrence C, Tipton K & Galloway SD (2015) The Ingestion of 39 or 64 g·hr-1 of Carbohydrate is Equally Effective at Improving Endurance Exercise Performance in Cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25 (3), pp. 285-292. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0134
Ditroilo M, Smith IJ, Fairweather MM & Hunter A (2013) Long-term stability of tensiomyography measured under different muscle conditions. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23 (3), pp. 558-563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.01.014
Neal CM, Hunter A, Brennan L, O'Sullivan A, Hamilton DL, De Vito G & Galloway SD (2013) Six weeks of a polarized training-intensity distribution leads to greater physiological and performance adaptations than a threshold model in trained cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 114 (4), pp. 461-471. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00652.2012
Galloway SD, Hunter A & Watt JM (2012) Athletes. In: Dryden T & Moyer C (eds.) Massage therapy: integrating research and practice. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, pp. 91-102. http://www.humankinetics.com/products/all-products/massage-therapy:-intergrating-research-and-practice
Cosgrove C, Galloway SD, Neal CM, Hunter A, McFarlin BK, Spielmann G & Simpson RJ (2012) The impact of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naive, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112 (8), pp. 2989-2998. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?partnerID=yv4JPVwI&eid=2-s2.0-83255165477&md5=f265bffda2911a51185478f030ef1ce3; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2273-9
Hunter A, Galloway SD, Smith IJ, Tallent J, Ditroilo M, Fairweather MM & Howatson G (2012) Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the elbow flexors by tensiomyography. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 22 (3), pp. 334-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.01.009
Clark DR, Lambert M & Hunter A (2012) Muscle activation in the loaded free barbell squat: A brief review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26 (4), pp. 1169-1178. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822d533d
Balshaw T & Hunter A (2012) Evaluation of electromyography normalisation methods for the back squat. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 22 (2), pp. 308-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.11.009
Neal CM, Hunter A & Galloway SD (2011) A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in ironman triathletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 (14), pp. 1515-1523. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.596217
Hunter A, Albertus-Kajee Y & Gibson ASC (2011) The effect of exercise induced hyperthermia on muscle fibre conduction velocity during sustained isometric contraction. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21 (5), pp. 834-840. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?partnerID=yv4JPVwI&eid=2-s2.0-80052367637&md5=b664015e3a682bdcfa9a7d8a92ad73c3; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.06.002
Brandon R, Howatson G & Hunter A (2011) Reliability of a combined biomechanical and surface electromyographical analysis system during dynamic barbell squat exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 (13), pp. 1389-1397. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.588956
Ditroilo M, Hunter A, Haslam S & De Vito G (2011) The effectiveness of two novel techniques in establishing the mechanical and contractile responses of biceps femoris. Physiological Measurement, 32 (8), pp. 1315-1326. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/020
Scott SM, Hughes AR, Galloway SD & Hunter A (2011) Surface EMG characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis during static contractions of the knee extensors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 31 (1), pp. 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2010.00972.x
Swaine IL, Hunter A, Carlton KJ, Wiles JD & Coleman D (2010) Reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise using a novel swimming training machine. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31 (12), pp. 854-859. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1265175
Hunter A, De Vito G, Bolger C, Mullany H & Galloway SD (2009) The effect of induced alkalosis and submaximal cycling on neuromuscular response during sustained isometric contraction. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27 (12), pp. 1261-1269. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903165077
Neal CM, Hunter A & Galloway SD (2007) Training intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman Triathletes: A longitudinal descriptive study. Taiwan Society for Sport First International Conference for the Sociology of Sport, "Sport, Culture and Society", National Taiwan Sport University, Taiwan, 25.09.2007-27.09.2009.
Cosgrove C, Simpson RJ, Galloway SD, Neal CM, Hunter A, McFarlin BK & Guy K (2009) Changes in the frequency of senescent blood T-cells during 6-months training preparation for an Ironman triathlon. 9th International Society of Exercise and Immunology symposium - "Exercise Immunology: Emerging Relevance in Clinical Medicine", Tubingen, Germany, 21.09.2009-23.09.2009. file:///C:/Users/ra45/Downloads/ISEI_2009_abstracts.pdf.
Neal CM, Hunter A & Galloway SD (2009) Training intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman Triathletes: A longitudinal descriptive study. International Sport Science & Sport Medicine Conference 2009, Newcastle, UK, 20.08.2009-22.08.2009.
Neal CM, Hunter A & Galloway SD (2009) Training intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman Triathletes: A longitudinal descriptive study. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Annual Meeting 2009, Seattle, USA, 27.05.2009-30.05.2009.
Hunter A, Albertus-Kajee Y & Gibson ASC (2008) The effect of hyperthermia and prolonged submaximal cycling on neuromuscular control of maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensors. The 17th Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, Niagra Falls, Canada, 18.06.2008-21.06.2008. https://isek.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/ISEK2008Niagara.pdf
Smith IJ & Hunter A (2007) The effect of induced damage of the upper limb on skeletal muscle tension (Presentation) 12th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Jyväskylä, Finland, 11.07.2007-14.07.2007.
Hunter A & Galloway SD (2007) The Effect of Induced Alkalosis and Prolonged Submaximal Cycling on Central and Peripheral Control of Maximal Voluntary Contraction of the Knee Extensors (Presentation) Experimental Biology 2007 Conference: "Today’s Research: Tomorrow’s Health", Washington DC, USA, 28.04.2007-02.05.2007.
Bottoms LM, Hunter A & Galloway SD (2006) Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on skill maintenance in squash players. European Journal of Sport Science, 6 (3), pp. 187-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390600804455
Hunter A, Smith IJ, Watt JM, Yirrell C & Galloway SD (2006) The Effect of Massage on Force Production and Tensiomyography. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38 (5 Supplement), pp. S27-S27. http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Citation/2006/05001/The_Effect_of_Massage_on_Force_Production_and.1002.aspx
Hunter A, Smith IJ, Watt JM, Yirrell C & Galloway SD (2006) Effect of Massage on Force Production and Tensiomyography. 53rd Annual Conference of the American College of Sports Medicine, Denver, Colorado, 31.05.2006-03.06.2006.
Smith IJ & Hunter A (2006) The Effect of Titanic Stimulated Induced Fatigue on the Relationship between TMG and Force Production of the Gastrocnemius Medialis. 53rd Annual Conference of the American College of Sports Medicine, Denver, Colorado, 31.05.2006-03.06.2006.
Hunter A, Watt JM, Watt V & Galloway SD (2006) Effect of lower limb massage on electromyography and force production of the knee extensors. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40 (2), pp. 114-118. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.019075
Hunter A (2005) Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function: Commentary. Commentary on: Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function: DA Baden, TL McLean, R Tucker, TD Noakes, A St Clair Gibson, Br J Sports Med 2005 39: 742-746, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.016980. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39 (10), pp. 746-746. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?partnerID=yv4JPVwI&eid=2-s2.0-26044439741&md5=15236357f24a7f27ae35abfe6483390e
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Lambert M, Nobbs LA & Noakes TD (2003) Effects of supramaximal exercise on the electromyographic signal. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37 (4), pp. 296-299. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.4.296
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Lambert M, Dennis SC, Mullany H, O'Malley MJ, Vaughan CL, Kay D & Noakes TD (2003) EMG amplitude in maximal and submaximal exercise is dependent on signal capture rate. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24 (2), pp. 83-89. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-38196
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Derman WE, Lambert M, Dennis SC & Noakes TD (2002) The effect of selective beta1-blockade on EMG signal characteristics during progressive endurance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 (3), pp. 275-281. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?partnerID=yv4JPVwI&eid=2-s2.0-0036886635&md5=7ecdf82d22298ca66fbeb434cf69c9c5; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0710-5
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Collins MR, Lambert M & Noakes TD (2002) Caffeine ingestion does not alter performance during a 100-km cycling time-trial performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12 (4), pp. 438-452. http://journals.humankinetics.com/ijsnem-back-issues/ijsnemVolume12Issue4December/CaffeineIngestionDoesNotAlterPerformanceDuringa100kmCyclingTimeTrialPerformance
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Mbambo Z, Lambert M & Noakes TD (2002) The effects of heat stress on neuromuscular activity during endurance exercise. Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 444 (6), pp. 738-743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-002-0841-x
Hunter A, Gibson ASC, Lambert M & Noakes TD (2002) Electromyographic (EMG) normalization method for cycle fatigue protocols. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34 (5), pp. 857-861. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200205000-00020