Impact of Non-Price Promotions on Discretionary Food Sales: Systematic Review of Marketing Evidence and Recommendations Paper (2018)
(Funded by the Scottish Government)
The objectives of the review are to establish:
- The relative effectiveness of in-premise marketing compared to forms of promotion/marketing used outwith premises in generating sales of discretionary products. This will also examine the effectiveness of marketing as a whole (both in store and out of store); and
- The impact of different elements of in-premise marketing have on consumer behaviour (e.g. whether some elements have no impact or some have a bigger impact).
ISM Staff: Kathryn Angus, Clare Sharp and Danielle Mitchell
External: Led by Laura Martin, NHS Health Scotland; Linda Bauld, University of Edinburgh
Mass Media for Public Health (2015-2017)
(Funded by the National Institute for Health Research)
Media advertising campaigns are used to promote sales of products, but they can also be used to give the public information about health and to encourage them to be more healthy (eg. adverts encouraging people to stop smoking, or to drink sensibly, or to use condoms). In recent years, we have seen a growth in new types of advertising and media, particularly on the internet and mobile phones. The evidence base on these newer types of media campaign is still emerging.
This systematic review-based study will attempt to pull together all the evidence on media advertising campaigns about health, to provide clear answers to the questions:
- How effective are mass media advertising campaigns at changing health behaviours?
- Are they more effective with certain groups of people than others?
- Are they equally effective at local, regional and national level?
By effective, we mean in the first instance ‘do they encourage the changes in behaviour which they are trying to change?’. However, sometimes campaigns do not try to change behaviour, but to move people towards being able to change behaviour in the future, for example by encouraging them to think differently about a health issue, or to feel more confident in their ability to change. We are interested in all of these types of effects.
We will focus on mass media campaigns for alcohol use, illicit drug use, diet, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, and smoking cessation and prevention. By media, we mean campaigns which use television and radio advertising, cinema advertising, advertising in newspapers and magazines, advertising on billboards and other types of outdoor advertising (eg. bus shelters, taxi cabs), advertising on the internet and on mobile phones, and other types of advertising (eg. advertising in video games).
The study will involve wide consultation with public health practitioners and commissioners at national and local level, and with representatives of public involvement groups.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Martine Stead, Kathryn Angus and Fiona Dobbie
External collaborators: Sarah Lewis and Tessa Langley, University of Nottingham; James Thomas and Kate Hinds, University of London, EPPI; Shona Hilton and Srinivasa Katikireddi, University of Glasgow
Stead M, Angus K, Langley T, Katikireddi SV, Hinds K, Hilton S, Lewis S, Thomas J, Campbell M, Young B and Bauld L (2019). Mass media to communicate public health messages in six health topic areas: a systematic review and other reviews of the evidence. Public Health Research, 7(8). doi:10.3310/phr07080
Young B, Lewis S, Katikireddi SV, Bauld L, Stead M, Angus K, Campbell M, Hilton S, Thomas J, Hinds K, Ashie A and Langley T (2018). Effectiveness of mass media campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption and harm: A systematic review. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 53(3): 302-316. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agx094
Young B, Lewis S, Katikireddi SV, Bauld L, Stead M, Angus K, Campbell M, Hilton S, Thomas J, Hinds K, Ashie A, Langley T (2017). Effectiveness of mass media campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption and harm: a systematic review. [Conference abstract]. The Lancet, 390(Suppl 3): S98. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33033-7
Barriers and Facilitators to Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy and Following Childbirth (2013-2015)
(Funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR))
This study will explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy through reviewing relevant literature, conducting qualitative research and developing proposals for future interventions. A qualitative study design will combine 3 systematic reviews and 3 exploratory studies conducted over a two year period. A set of literature reviews of barriers and facilitators to cessation in pregnancy and following childbirth will be taken.
ISM Staff: Linda Bauld, Lesley Sinclair, Jennifer McKell, Kathryn Angus and Allison Ford
Flemming K, Graham H, McCaughan D, Angus K, Sinclair L and Bauld L (2016). Health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and during the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research. BMC Public Health, 16: 290. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2961-9
Flemming K, Graham H, McCaughan D, Angus K and Bauld L (2015). The barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation experienced by women’s partners during pregnancy and the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research. BMC Public Health, 15: 849. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2163-x
Flemming K, McCaughan D, Angus K and Graham H (2015). Qualitative systematic review: Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation experienced by women in pregnancy and following childbirth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(6): 1210-1226. doi: 10.1111/jan.12580. Epub 2014 Nov 28.
Effectiveness and Barriers/Facilitators Reviews: Smokefree Secondary Care Settings (2011-2013)
(Funded by NICE and in collaboration with the University of Nottingham)
The aim of the study was to conduct two systematic reviews on:
- The effectiveness of smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings (for acute, maternity and mental health settings); and
- The barriers to and facilitators for implementing smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings (for acute, maternity and mental health settings) from the users’ and the providers’ perspectives.
The purpose was to support the development by NICE of their Public Health Guidance (November 2013) covering smoking cessation in secondary care in acute, maternity and mental health services. The reviews provided the best available evidence on smokefree strategies and interventions in these settings. The reviews were led by the Institute for Social Marketing in partnership with the University of Nottingham and collaborators from the EPPI-Centre at the Institute of Education and the NCSCT Community Interest Company.
ISM Staff: Kathryn Angus, Douglas Eadie and Laura Macdonald
Angus K, Murray R, Macdonald L, Eadie D, O’Mara-Eves A, Stansfield C and Leonardi-Bee J (2013). Review 6: A review of the effectiveness of smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Review
Eadie D, Macdonald L, Angus K, Murray R, O’Mara-Eves A, Stansfield C and Leonardi-Bee J (2012). Review 7: A review of the barriers to and facilitators for implementing smokefree strategies and interventions in secondary care settings. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Review
Plain Tobacco Packaging: A Systematic Review (2011-2012)
(Commissioned by the Department of Health)
This project was commissioned by the Department of Health via ISM's involvement in the Public Health Research Consortium. Colleagues from the University of Nottingham and the EPPI Centre at the University of London were also involved. The project consisted of a systematic review of all the available published evidence on standardised (or 'plain') packaging of tobacco products. The review set out to answer the following questions:
What effect, if any, does plain packaging have on:
- the appeal of packaging or product
- the salience and effectiveness of health warnings
- perceptions of product strength and harm
It also set out to identify any other potential benefits, whether the effects differ between groups and what the facilitators and barriers to impact are.
The review included studies from 1980 and from over 4,000 initial citations, 37 studies met the inclusion criteria.
ISM Staff: Martine Stead, Linda Bauld, Crawford Moodie, Kathryn Angus, Gerard Hastings, Richard Purves and Stuart Bryce (left 2011)
Stead M, Moodie C, Angus K, Bauld L, McNeill A, Thomas J, Hastings G, Hinds K, O’Mara-Eves A, Kwan I, Purves RI and Bryce SL (2013). Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies. PLoS One, 8(10): e75919. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075919
Moodie C, Bauld L and Stead M (2013). UK government’s delay on plain tobacco packaging: how much evidence is enough? BMJ, 347: f4786. doi:10.1136/bmj.f4786
Final report: Moodie C, Stead M, Bauld L, McNeill A, Angus K, Hinds K, Kwan I, Thomas J, Hastings G and O’Mara-Eves A (2012). Plain Tobacco Packaging: A Systematic Review. Available: https://www.phrc.online/assets/uploads/files/PHRC_006_Final_Report.pdf
Protocol: Moodie C, Hastings G, Thomas J, Stead M, Angus K and Bauld L (2011). Protocol for plain tobacco packaging: a systematic review. Available: https://www.phrc.online/assets/uploads/files/PHRC_006_Protocol.pdf
A Systematic Literature Review of the Evidence for Effective National Immunisation Schedule Promotional Communications(2010-2011)
(Commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC))
This review was part of an ECDC funded project ‘Translating Health Communications: Establishing a programme for dissemination of evidence based health communication activities and innovations on communicable diseases for country support in the EU and EEA/EFTA 2009-2012’.
Sub-optimal uptake of routine immunisations, resulting in resurgence of infectious diseases and outbreaks, eg. measles, is a current public health concern in Europe. There are a number of complex social factors contributing to ‘immunisation hesitancy’ such as: declining levels of trust in expert opinion; rapid dissemination of information and misinformation; and lack of awareness of the consequences of immunisation avoidance or delay because this is seldom seen at first-hand. The traditional public health response of relying exclusively or largely on the scientific evidence for the safety, efficacy and population-wide benefits rationale for immunisation, is an inadequate response to the problem.
The review explored and assessed the evidence for the effectiveness of immunisation promotional communications, with a focus on the European evidence. The findings intended to support the development of effective communications policies and strategies.
ISM Staff: Georgina Cairns, Laura Macdonald and Kathryn Angus
Macdonald L, Cairns G, Angus K and de Andrade M (2013). Promotional communications for influenza vaccination: A systematic review. Journal of Health Communication, 18(12): 1523-1549. doi:10.1080/10810730.2013.840697 eprint
Cairns G, Macdonald L, Angus K, Walker L, Cairns-Haylor T and Bowdler T (2012). Systematic Literature Review of the Evidence for Effective National Immunisation Schedule Promotional Communications. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Report online
A Systematic Literature Review to Examine the Evidence for the Effectiveness of Interventions that Use Theories and Models of Behaviour Change: Towards the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases(2010-2011)
(Commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC))
The review was part of the ECDC funded project ‘Translating Health Communications: Establishing a programme for dissemination of evidence based health communication activities and innovations on communicable diseases for country support in the EU and EEA/EFTA 2009-2012’.
Behavioural and social theories and models are considered an important tool in effective behaviour change interventions and programmes. They have the potential to help identify what changes can take place, explain and support change dynamics, identify key influencers on outcomes and select participants who are the most likely to benefit. The use of behavioural and social theories in health intervention planning and management also improves the prospects for replication, modification and scaling up of effective interventions, and improves the learning that can be derived from practice, whether successful or unsuccessful.
This review assessed the effectiveness of interventions that were based on theories and models of behaviour change to prevent or control communicable diseases relevant to Europe.
ISM Staff: Kathryn Angus, Georgina Cairns, Laura Macdonald, Richard Purves and Stuart Bryce (left 2011)
Angus K, Cairns G, Purves R, Bryce S, Macdonald L and Gordon R (2013). Systematic literature review to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions that use theories and models of behaviour change: towards the prevention and control of communicable diseases. Stockholm: ECDC. Report online
A Review of the Evidence for Effective Alcohol Education for the UK(2009-2010)
(Commissioned by the Alcohol Education and Research Council (AERC))
The Alcohol and Education Research Council, on behalf of Drinkaware, commissioned ISM to conduct a review of reviews of the international evidence base, with special reference to its applicability and relevance to the UK. ISM was asked to recommend and develop proposals for next steps to strengthen the research agenda and evidence base. ISM developed the design and research objectives for a systematic review of most promising approaches for alcohol education based interventions, and a longitudinal study of a community and/or family + school-based intervention.
AERC Second Stage: A Systematic Investigation of Critical Elements for Optimum Effectiveness of Promising Approaches and Delivery Methods in School and Family Linked Alcohol Education
Building on the findings of the first stage scooping study, this project systematically reviewed the evidence base on interventions intended to reduce or prevent alcohol misuse amongst young people. The review identified and interrogated the evidence base over a ten year period. Thematic analysis, case study and process and impact evidence collation methods were used. Internal and external elements of intervention programmes most frequently associated with positive behavioural outcomes were reported and strategic implications for future development were identified.
ISM Staff: Georgina Cairns, Martine Stead, Kathryn Angus, Richard Purves, Jennifer McKell and Stuart Bryce (left 2011)
Cairns G, Purves R, Bryce S, McKell J, Gordon R and Angus K (2011). Investigating the Effectiveness of Education in Relation to Alcohol: A Systematic Investigation of Critical Elements for Optimum Effectiveness of Promising Approaches and Delivery Methods in School and Family Linked Alcohol Education. Stirling: Institute for Social Marketing.
Community, School and Workplace Initiatives to Encourage Individuals to Use the Outdoor Environment for Physical Activity (2009-2010)
(Commissioned on behalf of the National Physical Activity Research and Evaluation group (NPARE) by NHS Health Scotland)
The aim of this review was to identify and review evidence of the effectiveness of initiatives and interventions delivered in the community, school, or workplace setting which have been designed to encourage individuals to use their local outdoor environment to increase their physical activity, and to identify and describe similar initiatives currently being delivered in Scotland. To do this we conducted a rapid review using systematic methods. The study involved two elements, an Evidence Review and the compilation of a Database of Current Activity in Scotland. For the Evidence Review, we searched for systematic reviews, primary studies and grey literature reports. Studies were assessed for relevance and rated for quality. For the Database of Current Activity, we used a mixed methods approach combining online searches, email and telephone contact. The results suggest that some approaches for promoting physical activity in the outdoor environment are effective (for example, walking groups, modifications to the physical environment, some organisational changes). There is insufficient evidence to date for some other approaches, such as conservation and forest schools.
ISM Staff: Martine Stead and Kathryn Angus
Collaborators: Ruth Jepson, Department of Nursing and Midwifery and Adrienne Hughes, Department of Sports Studies, University of Stirling; and Cecilia Oram, Sustrans
Stead M, Angus K, Jepson R, Hughes A and Oram C (2010). Community, school and workplace initiatives to encourage individuals to use the outdoor environment for physical activity. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland. Report online
Systematic Review on the Extent, Nature, and Effects of Food Promotion to Children(2009)
(Commissioned by the World Health Organization)
ISM revised and updated its 2006 systematic review for the World Health Organization. The review found commercial food marketing aimed at children and young people continued to be intensive and predominantly for low quality nutrition foods. The review did not identify any evidence of significant change in the nature or extent of commercial food marketing practice. An emerging evidence base on food marketing using new channels such as digital media and viral networks was noted, although TV advertising remains the most heavily researched medium. The evidence that food marketing influences food preferences, purchase, and consumption and diet-related health outcomes was once again confirmed. The review evidence was commissioned to support, and was used in the development of a Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Foods and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children. The recommendations were subsequently endorsed at the 63rd World Health Assembly, May 2010.
ISM Staff: Georgina Cairns, Kathryn Angus and Gerard Hastings
Cairns G, Angus K and Hastings G (2009). The Extent, Nature and Effects of Food Promotion to Children: A Review of the Evidence to December 2008. Prepared for the World Health Organization. Available here
The Content and Design of Alcohol Brief Intervention Training for Practitioners (2014-2015)
(Funded by Alcohol Research UK)
Research indicates that patients who are drinking alcohol at a risky or harmful level can reduce their drinking if health professionals identify their consumption and engage them in short, structured conversations about it (brief interventions – ‘BI’s). The provision of adequate training for health professionals is considered one important factor in enabling routine delivery of BIs. In research trials, the nature of such training has varied widely.
This project will:
- Identify, describe and critically review existing frameworks which may be helpful for describing and analysing training of this kind.
- Describe how training for professionals has been reported in BI trials to date.
- Source and describe what detailed information on training is available by contacting researchers from these trials.
The outcomes of this work will inform current practice in delivering BI training, and will lay the foundation for future research exploring how training can support BI delivery and effectiveness.
ISM Staff: Niamh Fitzgerald and Kathryn Angus
Overprovision of Licensed Premises in Scotland: A Public Health Perspective (2014)
(Funded by NHS Health Scotland)
In Scotland, the number of premises licensed to sell alcohol is controlled through a system of local licensing boards. Legislative changes in recent years have given such boards an objective of ‘protecting and improving public health’. Research has suggested that the controlling the number of licensed premises and therefore the availability of alcohol can reduce alcohol-related harm. This study involves qualitative interviews with individuals across Scotland working mainly in public health or in alcohol and drug partnerships who have worked on licensing issues in recent years. The study aims to identify how these individuals and their organisations have attempted to influence local licensing policies and decisions in Scotland, and in their experience, what factors are important in helping and/or hindering those efforts.
ISM Staff: Niamh Fitzgerald
Fitzgerald N (2015). Influencing the Implementation of a Public Health Objective in Scottish Alcohol Licensing: A Qualitative Interview Study – Summary Report. Stirling: University of Stirling, Institute for Social Marketing. Report
Women and Alcohol: Towards an Equity Review of the Effectiveness of Population-Based Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use and Harm by Gender (2014)
(Funded by Glasgow Centre for Population Health)
There is good evidence to suggest that a range of population-based interventions such as pricing, control of marketing, and reduction in availability of alcohol can reduce alcohol-related harm. This study will analyse published literature reviews of such interventions to determine the extent to which they report participation by women and any specific effects on women in the original studies underpinning this evidence. The results of the study will inform policy decisions as well as providing a basis for more detailed work considering how these kinds of interventions may have a differential effect by gender.
ISM Staff: Niamh Fitzgerald, Linda Bauld, Kathryn Angus and Martine Stead
Fitzgerald N, Angus K, Emslie C, Shipton D and Bauld L (2016). Gender differences in the impact of population-level alcohol policy interventions: evidence synthesis of systematic reviews. Addiction, 111: 1735-1747. doi:10.1111/add.13452