De Andrade M, Hastings G, Angus K, Dixon D & Purves R (2013) The Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in the UK. Cancer Research UK. University of Stirling. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@nre/@pol/documents/generalcontent/cr_115991.pdf
First paragraph: Tobacco harm reduction has long been a public private partnership (PPP), with all the potential conflicts of interest between the two sectors that such arrangements bring. Until recently, however, this was a relatively simple PPP, between tobacco control and one private partner: the pharmaceutical industry. Now a combination of technical innovation and an energised debate about harm reduction has opened the territory to two new private sector operators: electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) companies and tobacco companies, which has stimulated a dramatic increase in commercial activity. This study was commissioned to examine these developments, and map out both current activity and likely future trends. It covered the period from May 2012 to June 2013, and comprised a systematic audit of all forms of e-cigarette marketing, as well as the related public relations and editorial comment in tobacco industry and retail trade press. Traditional and digital / social networking outlets were included. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with marketing experts to help make sense of what was a very extensive data set: 991 discrete items (editorial, images, online posts and advertising) were identified.