Arguello-Casteleiro M, Henson C, Maroto N, Li S, Des-Diz J, Fernandez-Prieto MJ, Peters S, Furmston T, Sevillano Torrado C, Maseda Fernandez D, Kulshrestha M, Keane J, Stevens R & Wroe C (2022) MetaMap versus BERT models with explainable active learning: ontology-based experiments with prior knowledge for COVID-19. In: SWAT4HCLS 2022: Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Health Care and Life Sciences. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 3127. 13th International Conference on Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Health Care and Life Sciences, Leiden, Netherlands, 10.01.2022-14.01.2022. Leiden: CEUR-WS, pp. 108-117. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3127/paper-14.pdf
Abstract Emergence of the Coronavirus 2019 Disease has highlighted further the need for timely support for clinicians as they manage severely ill patients. We combine Semantic Web technologies with Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing with the aim of converting human-readable best evi-dence/practice for COVID-19 into that which is computer-interpretable. We present the results of experiments with 1212 clinical ideas (medical terms and expressions) from two UK national healthcare services specialty guides for COVID-19 and three versions of two BMJ Best Practice documents for COVID-19. The paper seeks to recognise and categorise clinical ideas, performing a Named Entity Recognition (NER) task, with an ontology providing extra terms as context and describing the intended meaning of categories understandable by clinicians. The paper investigates: 1) the performance of classical NER using MetaMap versus NER with fine-tuned BERT models; 2) the integration of both NER approaches using a lightweight ontology developed in close collaboration with senior doctors; and 3) the easy interpretation by junior doctors of the main classes from the ontology once populated with NER results. We report the NER performance and the observed agreement for human audits.
Keywords Ontologies; Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing; static embeddings; transformer-based language models; COVID-19