REFRESH—reducing families' exposure to secondhand smoke in the home: a feasibility study



Wilson I, Semple S, Mills LM, Ritchie D, Shaw A, O'Donnell R, Bonella P, Turner S & Amos A (2013) REFRESH—reducing families' exposure to secondhand smoke in the home: a feasibility study. Tobacco Control, 22 (5), Art. No.: e8.

Objective To study a novel intervention (REFRESH) aimed at reducing children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their homes. Design A randomised feasibility study. Setting Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire. Participants A total of 59 smoking mothers with at least one child younger than 6 years. Participation took place between July 2010 and March 2011. Intervention Four home visits over a 1-month period, which involved two 24-h measurements of home air quality (PM2.5) and a motivational interview to encourage changes to smoking behaviour within the home in order to reduce child SHS exposure. The enhanced group received their air quality data as part of their motivational interview at visit 2; the control group received that information at visit 4. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were comparisons of the data from visits 2 and 4 on the 24-h average concentration of PM2.5, the peak concentration of PM2.5, the percentage of time when household PM2.5 concentrations exceeded a health-based threshold of 35 μg/m3 and child's salivary cotinine (in nanograms per millilitre). The views of the mothers from the enhanced group about their understanding of the intervention and the measures used were also analysed to assess the acceptability and utility of the intervention. Results Of the recruited 54 participants, 48 completed the study: 27 from the control group and 21 from the enhanced group. Both groups experienced reductions in PM2.5 concentrations. When testing paired samples for the enhanced group, there was a significant difference (p

Tobacco Control: Volume 22, Issue 5

FundersBig Lottery Fund
Publication date30/09/2013
Publication date online21/05/2012
Date accepted by journal13/04/2012

People (2)


Dr Rachel O'Donnell

Dr Rachel O'Donnell

Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Social Marketing

Professor Sean Semple

Professor Sean Semple

Professor, Institute for Social Marketing