Citation Moodie C, MacKintosh AM & West R (2010) Adolescents' awareness of, and involvement with, illicit tobacco in the UK (Letter). Tobacco Control, 19 (6), pp. 521-522. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2009.034967
Abstract First paragraph: The trade in illicit tobacco, which includes counterfeiting, bootlegging (small-scale smuggling) and large-scale organised smuggling by criminal gangs, has flourished in the UK and worldwide in the last decade. The presence of supply routes and distribution networks, geographic location, stringency of tobacco control, resource and efforts of customs officers and border patrols, trading standards and police, level of punitive measures for smuggling and international cooperation all collectively influence the level of illicit trade, while taxation appears to play a minor role.
Journal Tobacco Control: Volume 19, Issue 6
Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; West, Robert