Gell L, Buhringer G, Room R, Allamani A, Eiroa-Orosa FJ, Forberger S, Holmes J, Lingford-Hughes A, McLeod J, Meier P & Stead M (2016) Discussion and integration of key findings. In: Gell L, Bühringer G, McLeod J, Forberger S, Holmes J, Lingford-Hughes A & Meier P (eds.) What Determines Harm from Addictive Substances and Behaviours?. Governance of Addictive Substances and Behaviours Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 157-186. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/what-determines-harm-from-addictive-substances-and-behaviours-9780198746683?cc=gb〈=en&
First paragraph: In reframing addiction, ALICE RAP aims to expand policy debates beyond a reductionist approach focusing solely on substance and non-substance use disorders, and instead facilitate discussion of broader aspects of problem substance use and problem gambling. In doing this, our approach has privileged the perspective of risk and harm, side-lining other perspectives, for example, psychoactive substances and gambling as positive experiences with biological, individual, and sociological benefits of use. The risky and harmful behaviours that we discuss do not develop overnight, but can be characterized as a developmental process with critical thresholds from low risk to risky and harmful use. These processes are highly individual concerning duration, pattern, and problem severity. This work reflects the endeavour to better understand the individual and environmental risk factors that influence these developments, in order to improve public policy around primary prevention and early intervention to limit potentially harmful behaviour. Chapters 6 and 7 together provide a discussion of the findings presented in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, and present implications for research, policy, and practice. First, we provide a summary of key findings.