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Article

Early nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

Citation
Vera L, Metochis C, Taylor J, Clarkson M, Skjaerven KH, Migaud H & Tocher DR (2017) Early nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. BMC Genomics, 18 (1), Art. No.: 886. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-4264-7

Abstract
Background  To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy.  Results  Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking.  Conclusions  The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.

Keywords
Atlantic salmon; nutritional programming; aquaculture; microarray; liver transcriptome; plant-based feeds

Journal
BMC Genomics: Volume 18, Issue 1

StatusPublished
Author(s)Vera, LM; Metochis, Christoforos; Taylor, John; Clarkson, Michael; Skjaerven, Kaja H; Migaud, Herve; Tocher, Douglas R
FundersEuropean Commission
Publication date17/11/2017
Publication date online17/11/2017
Date accepted by journal02/11/2017
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/26182
PublisherBioMed Central
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