Impact of Physical Activity on Adiposity and Risk Markers for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease



Aljaloud KS, Hughes AR & Galloway SD (2022) Impact of Physical Activity on Adiposity and Risk Markers for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease. American Journal of Men's Health, 16 (2).

The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of physical activity (PA) on adiposity and for cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk markers (CMDRMs). In total, 55 adults (33 lean [L] and 22 overweight/obesity [O/O]) visited the laboratory on two occasions. During the first session, body composition and anthropometric measurements were taken as well as resting blood pressure (BP). Free-living PA intensity was monitored using an ActiGraph accelerometer, which the participants wore for a period of 6 days. During the second visit, blood samples for the analysis of disease risk markers were obtained from the participants in the morning after overnight fasting (≥10 hr). There was no significant difference between groups in the percentage of time spent in PA levels (54.5% ± 1.2% and 54.9% ± 2.1% for L and O/O, respectively). Although, the O/O group was within recommended PA level, they had higher leptin, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels than the L group (all p < .01). The O/O group had higher levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL; all p < .01). Interestingly, vigorous activity was positively correlated with HDL (r = .30, p < .05) and negatively with LDL (r = −.26, p = .05) levels and the arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid (ARA/EPA) ratio (r = −.30, p < .05). Only the O/O group had elevated CMDRMs. However, vigorous activity may improve health-related blood lipids such as HDL, LDL, and ARA/EPA ratio. Regardless of body composition status, low active participants were more likely to have higher level of leptin and hsCRP. Further exploration of the beneficial effects of vigorous exercise on adiposity and CMDRMs is warranted.

physical activity; cardiovascular disease; adiposity; cytokine

American Journal of Men's Health: Volume 16, Issue 2

Publication date31/03/2022
Publication date online30/04/2022
Date accepted by journal17/03/2022

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Professor Stuart Galloway
Professor Stuart Galloway

Professor, Sport