Massimo M, Volpatti D, Galeotti M, Bron JE & Beraldo P (2022) News Insights into the Host-Parasite Interactions of Amyloodiniosis in European Sea Bass: A Multi-Modal Approach. Pathogens, 11 (1), Art. No.: 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010062
Amyloodiniosis is a disease resulting from infestation by the ectoparasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum (AO) and is a threat for fish species such as European sea bass (ESB, Dicentrarchus labrax), which are farmed in lagoon and land-based rearing sites. During the summer, when temperatures are highest, mortality rates can reach 100%, with serious impacts for the aquaculture industry. As no effective licensed therapies currently exist, this study was undertaken to improve knowledge of the biology of AO and of the host-parasite relationship between the protozoan and ESB, in order to formulate better prophylactic/therapeutic treatments targeting AO. To achieve this, a multi-modal study was performed involving a broad range of analytical modalities, including conventional histology (HIS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Gills and the oro-pharyngeal cavity were the primary sites of amyloodiniosis, with hyperplasia and cell degeneration more evident in severe infestations (HIS). Plasmacells and macrophages were localised by IHC and correlated with the parasite burden in a time-course experimental challenge. CLSM allowed reconstruction of the 3D morphology of infecting trophonts and suggested a protein composition for its anchoring and feeding structures. These findings provide a potential starting point for the development of new prophylactic/therapeutic controls.
dinoflagellate; Amyloodinium ocellatum; histology; immunohistochemistry; confocal laser scanning microscopy; aquaculture; European sea bass
Pathogens: Volume 11, Issue 1