Article

Secondhand smoke exposure assessment in outdoor hospitality venues across 11 European countries

Citation

Henderson E, Continente X, Fernández E, Tigova O, Cortés-Francisco N, Gallus S, Lugo A, Semple S, Dobson R, Clancy L, Keogan S, Ruprecht A, Borgini A, Tzortzi A & O'Donnell R (2021) Secondhand smoke exposure assessment in outdoor hospitality venues across 11 European countries. Environmental Research, 200, Art. No.: 111355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111355

Abstract
Objective Due to partial or poorly enforced restrictions secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is still present in outdoor hospitality venues in many European countries. This study aimed to assess SHS concentrations in outdoor hospitality venues across Europe and identify contextual exposure determinants. Methods Cross-sectional study. We measured airborne nicotine and evidence of tobacco use in terraces of bars, cafeterias, and pubs from 11 European countries in 2017-2018. Sites were selected considering area-level socioeconomic indicators and half were visited during nighttime. We noted the smell of smoke, presence of smokers, cigarette butts, ashtrays, and number of physical covers. Contextual determinants included national smoke-free policies for the hospitality sector, the Tobacco Control Scale score (2016), and the national smoking prevalence (2017-2018). We computed medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine concentrations and used multivariate analyses to characterize the exposure determinants. Results Nicotine was present in 93.6% of the 220 sites explored. Overall concentrations were 0.85 (IQR:0.30-3.74) μg/m3 and increased during nighttime (1.45 IQR:0.65-4.79 μg/m3), in enclosed venues (2.97 IQR:0.80-5.80 μg/m3), in venues with more than two smokers (2.79 IQR:1.03-6.30 μg/m3), in venues in countries with total indoor smoking bans (1.20 IQR:0.47-4.85 μg/m3), and in venues in countries with higher smoking prevalence (1.32 IQR:0.49-5.34 μg/m3). In multivariate analyses, nicotine concentrations were also positively associated with the observed number of cigarette butts. In venues with more than two smokers, SHS levels did not significantly vary with the venues’ degree of enclosure. Conclusions Our results suggest that current restrictions in outdoor hospitality venues across Europe have a limited protective effect and justify the adoption of total smoking bans in outdoor areas of hospitality venues.

Keywords
Tobacco-smoke pollution; airborne nicotine; smoke-free policies; outdoor; hospitality venue

Notes
Additional co-authors: Vergina K. Vyzikidou, Giuseppe Gorini, Angel López-Nicolás, Joan B. Soriano, Gergana Geshanova, Joseph Osman, Ute Mons, Krzysztof Przewozniak, José Precioso, Ramona Brad, Maria J. López,

Journal
Environmental Research: Volume 200

StatusPublished
FundersEuropean Commission (Horizon 2020)
Publication date30/09/2021
Publication date online31/05/2021
Date accepted by journal17/05/2021
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/32720
ISSN0013-9351