Limited evidence for executive function load impairing selective copying in a win-stay lose-shift task



Dunstone J, Atkinson M, Grainger C, Renner E & Caldwell CA (2021) Limited evidence for executive function load impairing selective copying in a win-stay lose-shift task. PLOS ONE, 16 (3), Art. No.: e0247183.

The use of ‘explicitly metacognitive’ learning strategies has been proposed as an explanation for uniquely human capacities for cumulative culture. Such strategies are proposed to rely on explicit, system-2 cognitive processes, to enable advantageous selective copying. To investigate the plausibility of this theory, we investigated participants’ ability to make flexible learning decisions, and their metacognitive monitoring efficiency, under executive function (EF) load. Adult participants completed a simple win-stay lose-shift (WSLS) paradigm task, intended to model a situation where presented information can be used to inform response choice, by copying rewarded responses and avoiding those that are unrewarded. This was completed alongside a concurrent switching task. Participants were split into three conditions: those that needed to use a selective copying, WSLS strategy, those that should always copy observed information, and those that should always do the opposite (Expt 1). Participants also completed a metacognitive monitoring task alongside the concurrent switching task (Expt 2). Conditions demanding selective strategies were more challenging than those requiring the use of one rule consistently. In addition, consistently copying was less challenging than consistently avoiding observed stimuli. Differences between selectively copying and always copying were hypothesised to stem from working memory requirements rather than the concurrent EF load. No impact of EF load was found on participants’ metacognitive monitoring ability. These results suggest that copying decisions are underpinned by the use of executive functions even at a very basic level, and that selective copying strategies are more challenging than a combination of their component parts. We found minimal evidence that selective copying strategies relied on executive functions any more than consistent copying or deviation. However, task experience effects suggested that ceiling effects could have been masking differences between conditions which might be apparent in other contexts, such as when observed information must be retained in memory.

General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; General Agricultural and Biological Sciences; General Medicine

PLOS ONE: Volume 16, Issue 3

FundersEuropean Commission (Horizon 2020)
Publication date31/12/2021
Publication date online04/03/2021
Date accepted by journal02/02/2021
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)

People (1)


Professor Christine Anna Caldwell

Professor Christine Anna Caldwell

Professor, Psychology

Projects (1)