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Article

Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial

Citation
Little P, Stuart B, Francis N, Douglas E, Tonkin-Crine S, Anthierens S, Cals JWL, Melbye H, Santer M, Moore M, Coenen S, Butler CC, Hood K, Kelson M & Godycki-Cwirko M (2019) Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Family Medicine, 17 (2), pp. 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2356

Abstract
PURPOSE C-reactive-protein (CRP) is useful for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A large international trial documented that Internet-based training in CRP point-of-care testing, in enhanced communication skills, or both reduced antibiotic prescribing at 3 months, with risk ratios (RRs) of 0.68, 0.53, 0.38, respectively. We report the longer-term impact in this trial. METHODS A total of 246 general practices in 6 countries were cluster-randomized to usual care, Internet-based training on CRP point-of-care testing, Internet-based training on enhanced communication skills and interactive booklet, or both interventions combined. The main outcome was antibiotic prescribing for RTIs after 12 months. RESULTS Of 228 practices providing 3-month data, 74% provided 12-month data, with no demonstrable attrition bias. Between 3 months and 12 months, prescribing for RTIs decreased with usual care (from 58% to 51%), but increased with CRP training (from 35% to 43%) and with both interventions combined (from 32% to 45%); at 12 months, the adjusted RRs compared with usual care were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.51-1.00) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.49-0.93), respectively. Between 3 months and 12 months, the reduction in prescribing with communication training was maintained (41% and 40%, with an RR at 12 months of 0.70 [95% CI, 0.49-0.94]). Although materials were provided for free, clinicians seldom used booklets and rarely used CRP point-of-care testing. Communication training, but not CRP training, remained efficacious for reducing prescribing for lower RTIs (RR = 0.7195% CI, 0.45-0.99, and RR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.47-1.06, respectively), whereas both remained efficacious for reducing prescribing for upper RTIs (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and RR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Internet-based training in enhanced communication skills remains effective in the longer term for reducing antibiotic prescribing. The early improvement seen with CRP training wanes, and this training becomes ineffective for lower RTIs, the only current indication for using CRP testing.

Keywords
antibiotics; prescribing; antimicrobial stewardship; respiratory tract infections; antimicrobial resistance; primary care; clinical practice patterns; communication; C-reactive protein; practice-based research

Notes
Additional co-authors: Artur Mierzecki, Antoni Torres, Carl Llor, Melanie Davies, Mark Mullee, Gilly O’Reilly, Alike van der Velden, Adam W A Geraghty, Herman Goossens, Theo Verheij, and Lucy Yardley on behalf of the GRACE consortium

Journal
Annals of Family Medicine: Volume 17, Issue 2

StatusPublished
Author(s)Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Francis, Nick; Douglas, Elaine; Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Anthierens, Sibyl; Cals, Jochen W L; Melbye, Hasse; Santer, Miriam; Moore, Michael; Coenen, Samuel; Butler, Chris C; Hood, Kerenza; Kelson, Mark; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek
FundersEuropean Commission
Publication date31/03/2019
Publication date online01/03/2019
Date accepted by journal31/12/2018
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/29337
ISSN1544-1709
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