Taylor JF, Vera LM, De Santis C, Lock E, Espe M, Skjaerven KH, Leeming D, del Pozo J, Mota-Velasco J, Migaud H, Hamre K & Tocher DR (2019) The effect of micronutrient supplementation on growth and hepatic metabolism in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr fed a low marine ingredient diet. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 227, pp. 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2018.10.004
The effects of low marine ingredient diets supplemented with graded levels (L1, L2, L3) of a micronutrient package (NP) on growth and metabolic responses were studied in diploid and triploid salmon parr. Diploids fed L2 showed significantly improved growth and reduced liver, hepatic steatosis, and viscerosomatic indices, while fish fed L3 showed suppressed growth rate 14 weeks post feeding. In contrast, dietary NP level had no effect on triploid performance. Whole body mineral composition, with exception of copper, did not differ between diet or ploidy. Whole fish total AAs and N-metabolites showed no variation by diet or ploidy. Free circulating AAs and white muscle N-metabolites were higher in triploids than diploids, while branch-chained amino acids were higher in diploids than triploids. Diploids had higher whole body α-tocopherol and hepatic vitamins K1 and K2 than triploids. Increased tissue B-vitamins for niacin and whole-body folate with dietary NP supplementation were observed in diploids but not triploids, while whole body riboflavin was higher in diploids than triploids. Hepatic transcriptome profiles showed that diploids fed diet L2 was more similar to that observed in triploids fed diet L3. In particular, sterol biosynthesis pathways were down-regulated, whereas cytochrome P450 metabolism was up-regulated. One‑carbon metabolism was also affected by increasing levels of supplementation in both ploidies. Collectively, results suggested that, for optimised growth and liver function, micronutrient levels be supplemented above current National Research Council (2011) recommendations for Atlantic salmon when fed low marine ingredient diets. The study also suggested differences in nutritional requirements between ploidy.
Atlantic salmon; Micronutrient; Vegetable; Ingredients; Nutrition
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Volume 227