Bhowmik D & Abhayaratne C (2014) On robustness against JPEG2000: a performance evaluation of wavelet-based watermarking techniques. Multimedia Systems, 20 (2), pp. 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00530-013-0334-0
With the emergence of new scalable coding standards, such as JPEG2000, multimedia is stored as scalable coded bit streams that may be adapted to cater network, device and usage preferences in multimedia usage chains providing universal multimedia access. These adaptations include quality, resolution, frame rate and region of interest scalability and achieved by discarding least significant parts of the bit stream according to the scalability criteria. Such content adaptations may also affect the content protection data, such as watermarks, hidden in the original content. Many wavelet-based robust watermarking techniques robust to such JPEG2000 compression attacks are proposed in the literature. In this paper, we have categorized and evaluated the robustness of such wavelet-based image watermarking techniques against JPEG2000 compression, in terms of algorithmic choices, wavelet kernel selection, subband selection, or watermark selection using a new modular framework. As most of the algorithms use a different set of parametric combination, this analysis is particularly useful to understand the effect of various parameters on the robustness under a common platform and helpful to design any such new algorithm. The analysis also considers the imperceptibility performance of the watermark embedding, as robustness and imperceptibility are two main watermarking properties, complementary to each other.
Wavelet-based image watermarking; watermarking evaluation; robustness; scalable coding; content adaptation; JPEG2000;
Multimedia Systems: Volume 20, Issue 2