Article

Dietary live yeast and increased water temperature influence the gut microbiota of rainbow trout

Citation

Huyben D, Sun L, Moccia R, Kiessling A, Dicksved J & Lundh T (2018) Dietary live yeast and increased water temperature influence the gut microbiota of rainbow trout. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 124 (6), pp. 1377-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.13738

Abstract
Aims The objective was to determine the effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) with live yeast and increasing water temperature on the diversity and composition of gut microbiota in rainbow trout. Methods and Results Fish were fed either FM or yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and reared in water temperatures of either 11°C (cold) or 18°C (warm) for 6 weeks. Luminal content and mucosa were collected from the distal gut and the load, diversity and species abundance of yeast and bacteria were analysed using agar plating, MALDI‐TOF and rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Yeast in the gut of fish fed FM were represented by S. cerevisiae, Rhodotorula spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii, while fish fed yeast contained 4–5 log higher CFU per g of yeast that were entirely represented by S. cerevisiae. For gut bacteria, sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq showed lower bacterial diversity and abundance of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus, in fish reared in warm rather than cold water. Fish fed yeast had similar bacterial diversity and lower abundance of Leuconostocaceae and Photobacterium compared with fish fed FM. Conclusions Feeding live yeast mainly increased yeast load in the gut, while increased water temperature significantly altered the gut microbiota of rainbow trout in terms of bacterial diversity and abundance. Significance and Impact of the Study Live yeast can replace 40% of FM without disrupting bacteria communities in the gut of rainbow trout, while increased water temperature due to seasonal fluctuations and/or climate change may result in a gut dysbiosis that may jeopardize the health of farmed fish.

Keywords
aquaculture; fish (live); intestinal microbiology; lactic acid bacteria; yeasts

Journal
Journal of Applied Microbiology: Volume 124, Issue 6

StatusPublished
FundersSvenska Forskningsrådet Formas, University of Guelph, Science for Life Laboratory, Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse, National Genomics Infrastructure and Uppsala Multidisciplinary Center for Advanced Computational Science
Publication date30/06/2018
Publication date online21/02/2018
Date accepted by journal12/02/2018
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/28352
PublisherWiley
ISSN1364-5072