Citation Goncalves RA, Navarro-Guillen C, Gilannejad N, Dias J, Schatzmayr D, Bichl G, Czabany T, Moyano FJ, Rema P, Yufera M, MacKenzie S & Martinez-Rodriguez G (2018) Impact of deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout: Growth performance, digestibility, key gene expression regulation and metabolism. Aquaculture, 490, pp. 362-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.001
Abstract The impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, is mainly characterised by impaired growth performance and reduced feed intake, usually with the total absence of any visible clinical signs. Despite the high concentrations of DON in the present study (up to 11,412 ± 1141 μg kg−1), no clinical signs (except anorexia at the higher DON dosage) were observed, which confirms the difficulties of diagnosing DON ingestion. Compared to the control group, the proteolytic enzyme activities (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin) in trout were altered by DON ingestion. However, it was not clear if the observed impact on digestive enzymes was due to the direct action of DON, or a consequence of the lower feed intake determined for DON-treated animals. The impact of DON on the abundance of specific measured mRNA transcripts was unexpected with higher expression levels for insulin-like growth factors, igf1 and igf2, which are directly related to elevated insulin levels in plasma. This can also in part be influenced by the trypsin activity and by npy, given its higher mRNA expression levels. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy was not affected by dietary levels of DON, however, nutrient retention, protein, fat and energy retention were significantly affected in animals fed DON. Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) expression seems to play an important role in controlling feed intake in DON fed trout. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that DON is metabolized to DON-3-sulfate in trout. DON-3-sulfate is much less toxic than DON, which helps to explain the lack of clinical signs in fish fed DON. Being a novel metabolite identified in trout makes it a potential biomarker of DON exposure. Suppression of appetite due to DON contamination in feeds might be a defense mechanism in order to decrease the exposure of the animal to DON, therefore reducing the potential negative impacts of DON.