Citation Anakpa E, Saeed A, Chung P, Riehle MO, Gadegaard N, Dalby MJ & Cusack M (2018) The Prismatic Topography of Pinctada maxima Shell Retains Stem Cell Multipotency and Plasticity In Vitro. Advanced Biosystems, 2 (6), Art. No.: 1800012. https://doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800012
Abstract Abstract The shell of the bivalve mollusc Pinctada maxima is composed of the calcium carbonate polymorphs calcite and aragonite (nacre). Mother‐of‐pearl, or nacre, induces vertebrate cells to undergo osteogenesis and has good osteointegrative qualities in vivo. The calcite counterpart, however, is less researched in terms of the response of vertebrate cells. This study shows that isolation of calcite surface topography from the inherent chemistry allows viable long‐term culture of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Self‐renewal is evident from the increased gene expression of the self‐renewal markers CD63, CD166, and CD271 indicating that cells cultured on the calcite topography maintain their stem cell phenotype. MSCs also retain their multipotency and can undergo successful differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. When directed to adipogenesis, MSCs cultured on prism replicas are more amenable to differentiation than MSCs cultured on tissue culture polystyrene indicating a higher degree of plasticity in MSCs growing on calcite P. maxima prismatic topography. The study highlights the potential of the calcite topography of P. maxima as a biomimetic design for supporting expansion of MSC populations in vitro, which is of fundamental importance if it meets the demands for autologous MSCs for therapeutic use.