Leclercq E, Taylor J, Fison D, Fjelldal PG, Diez-Padrisa M, Hansen T & Migaud H (2011) Comparative seawater performance and deformity prevalence in out-of-season diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 158 (1), pp. 116-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.09.018
The use of sterile triploid stock in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L) farming industry is the only commercially available means to prevent the ecological impact of domesticated escapees. This study compared the seawater (SW) performance and deformity prevalence of diploid and triploid post-smolts from 2 full-sib families produced out-of-season. Triploids completed smoltification 4 weeks earlier and at a significantly higher body-weight. Growth and survival in SW were not significantly affected by ploidy. The incidence of external deformities, dominated by jaw malformation, was ~ 12% in triploids and below 5% in diploids. Vertebral deformities were more prevalent in the fastest growing triploid family only. Heart morphometry differed between ploidies which may relate to a higher cardiac workload in triploids. No clear alteration of the gill apparatus was detected. The most significant detrimental effect of triploidy was on the rate and severity of cataract that were observed from August onward (50% and 92% of diploids and triploids respectively affected after 1-year in SW). At that time, cataracts were diagnosed by histological examinations as irreversible with a probable osmotic origin which could arise from factors such as water quality, nutritional deficiencies or thermal variations. This study warrants further research aiming at adapting rearing practices to the needs of triploid stocks as to improve their performance and welfare.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology: Volume 158, Issue 1