Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity



Minderman J, Pendlebury C, Pearce-Higgins JW & Park K (2012) Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity. PLoS ONE, 7 (7), Art. No.: e41177.

The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW) sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

PLoS ONE: Volume 7, Issue 7

Publication date30/07/2012
PublisherPublic Library of Science

People (2)


Dr Jeroen Minderman
Dr Jeroen Minderman

Research Fellow, Biological and Environmental Sciences

Professor Kirsty Park
Professor Kirsty Park

Professor, Biological and Environmental Sciences