Tocher DR & Dick JR (1999) Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a cell culture model of essential fatty acid deficiency in a freshwater fish, carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 21 (3), pp. 257-267. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0920-1742/; https://doi.org/10.1023/A%3A1007832510559
Proliferation of an essential fatty acid deficient cell line from carp (EPC-EFAD; epithelioma papillosum carp-essential fatty acid deficient) is stimulated by supplementing the cells with C20, but not C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). It is hypothesized that the differential ability of the PUFA to stimulate proliferation of the EPC-EFAD cells may be related to the extent of the cells’ ability to desaturate and elongate C18 PUFA. In the present study, the metabolism of 14C-labeled C18 and C20 PUFA was investigated in EPC-EFAD cells in comparison with normal EPC cells. The incorporation of all the PUFA was significantly greater in EPC-EFAD cells but the rank order, 20:5n-3 > 18:3n-3 = 18:2n-6 >20:4n-6 was the same in both cell lines. The proportion of radioactivity from all labeled PUFA recovered in phosphatidylethanolamine and total polar lipids was significantly lower in EPC-EFAD cells compared to EPC cells, whereas the proportion of radioactivity recovered in all the other phospholipid classes and total neutral lipid was greater in EPC-EFAD cells. Both cell lines desaturated[1-14C]18:3n-3 and [1-14C]20:5n-3 to a greater extent than the corresponding (n-6) substrates but the desaturation of all the 14C-labeled PUFA was significantly greater in EPC-EFAD cells compared to EPC cells. The results showed that, although essential fatty acid deficiency had several significant effects on PUFA metabolism in EPC cells, the fatty acid desaturation/elongation pathway was not impaired in EPC-EFAD cells and so they can desaturate 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. However, 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, and not 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3, were the predominant C20 PUFA produced by the elongation and desaturation of [1-14C]18:3n-3 and [1-14C]18:2n-6, respectively. Therefore, the previously reported inability of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, compared to 20:5n-3 and 20:4n-6, to stimulate proliferation of the cells is apparently not due to a general deficiency in the fatty acid desaturation pathway in EPC-EFAD cells but may be related to potential differences in eicosanoid profiles in cells supplemented with C18 PUFA compared to C20 PUFA.
Fish; Cell culture; Essential fatty acid deficiency; Growth; polyunsaturated fatty acid; Metabolism; Cell model; Desaturation; Elongation; Biosynthesis
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry: Volume 21, Issue 3