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Article

Governor Francis Bernard, the Massachusetts Friends of Government, and the Advent of the Revolution

Citation
Nicolson C (1991) Governor Francis Bernard, the Massachusetts Friends of Government, and the Advent of the Revolution. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 103, pp. 24-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25081034

Abstract
This article examines the political bases of proto-Loyalism in before the American Revolution. It is based on a prosopography of 727 friends of government in Massachusetts and demonstrates that (a) they were a significant political presence during the administration of Gov. Francis Bernard, 1760-69; (b) they constituted a substantial body of opinion critical of the radical leadership of the colonial protest movement that emerged during the imperial crisis; (c) they represented a potential cadre for Loyalist counter-revolution; (d) the failure of the royal governors to build a coherent anti-revolutionary party explains the futility of counteracting the Revolution in Massachusetts in 1774-76.

Keywords
American Revolution; Massachusetts; Friends of Government; Francis Bernard; Loyalism; Imperial Crisis; Origins of the American Revolution; Prosopography; 1765-1776; United States History Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775; American loyalists; Boston (Mass) Politics and government; Massachusetts Govenor (1760-1770 : Bernard)

Notes
Page 108 has been omitted from the full text in STORRE.

Journal
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society: Volume 103

StatusPublished
Author(s)Nicolson, Colin
Publication date31/12/1991
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/2659
PublisherMassachusetts Historical Society
Publisher URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/25081034
ISSN0076-4981
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