Dedenbach-Salazar Saenz S & Hannss K (2008) Chipaya case markers -kiś and -kin: subject and speaker reference. INDIANA, 25, pp. 77-93. http://www.iai.spk-berlin.de/en/publications/indiana/previous-issues/indiana-25/p-77-93.html
In this paper we present a first analysis of two location/direction markers of the Amerindian Chipaya language, which is spoken by ca 1,800 persons in the Bolivian Altiplano village of Santa Ana de Chipaya (Dept. Oruro). Distinctive features of the Chipaya case marking system are the directional, indirect complement and locative marking suffixes -kiś and -kin. Each covers all three functions. Whilst similar case marking is also found in other languages, Chipaya shows a further peculiarity. The suffix -kiś always marks closeness and always refers to the relationship between subject and complement, but the distance marker -kin behaves differently. With an indirect complement it indicates that the location marked by it is distant from the subject; with a locative complement it is the speaker's standpoint and not the subject that determines its usage.
linguistics; Amerindian language; morphology; Chipaya; Bolivia; Chipaya language; Chipaya (Bolivia); Chipaya Indians; Spatial behavior Bolivia Chipaya
INDIANA: Volume 25