Cairns G, Angus K & Hastings G (2009) The extent, nature and effects of food promotion to children: a review of the evidence to December 2008. World Health Organization, WHO Press. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/marketing-food-to-children/en/
This document reviews evidence to December 2008 on the global extent and nature of food promotion to children, and its effects on their food knowledge, preferences, behaviour and diet related health outcomes. The review was commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO) and updates a systematic review of the evidence conducted on behalf of WHO in 2006. Studies examining the extent and nature of food promotion to children consistently conclude that food promotion is the most prevalent marketing category targeting children and young people. Content analysis research finds that the majority of foods and food products promoted are energy dense, high fat, sugar and/or high salt, and in sharp contrast to national and international dietary guidelines. Sugar-sweetened breakfast cereals, soft-drinks, confectionary and savoury snacks are the most frequently advertised categories, with fast-food promotion continuing to gain marketing share. Promotion of unprocessed foods, such as fruit and vegetables, wholegrain and milk is found to be almost zero.
food promotion; marketing; child; advertising; food supply; diet; Public health Marketing; Marketing of Health Services; Social marketing