Citation Heymann EW & Buchanan-Smith HM (2000) The behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of callitrichine primates. Biological Reviews, 75 (2), pp. 169-190. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/biological-reviews/article/behavioural-ecology-of-mixedspecies-troops-of-callitrichine-primates/3FB246B2B4EB40197936A60A2A556001
Abstract This review summarizes information on the behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops (interspeciﬁcassociations) formed by diﬀerent species of callitrichines, small New World monkeys, in western and centralAmazonia. The formation of mixed-species troops is an integral part of the biology of several species of thissubfamily. Niche separation between associated species is obtained through vertical segregation which resultsin diﬀerences in the prey spectrum. The degree of niche separation is a predictor for the stability of mixed-species troops. Individuals may beneﬁt from the formation of mixed-species troops through increased safetyfrom predators, increased foraging eﬃciency, and \ or increased resource defence. Costs of mixed-speciestroop formation are probably very low and mainly relate to patterns of interspeciﬁc behavioural interactions.We point to gaps in our knowledge and suggest pathways for future research into mixed-species troops.