Citation Edwards P, Kaewpaitoon K, Little DC & Siripandh N (1994) An assessment of the role of buffalo manure for pond culture of tilapia. II. Field trial. Aquaculture, 126 (1-2), pp. 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486%2894%2990251-8
Abstract Ten cooperating farmers in Northeast Thailand obtained a mean net yield of 1.8 tonnes/ha/yr of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in 200-m2 ponds manured at a rate of 200 kg dry matter (DM)/ha/day. Farmers were enthusiastic about the trial but fish production was most inefficient. A mean of 4.0 tonnes of fresh manure was collected and loaded into the 200-m2 pond over a 7-month period to yield only 20.7 kg of fish. Mean manure to fish conversion ratios were 195 and 34:1 on fresh and dry matter bases, respectively, with a dry matter conversion efficiency of manure to fish of less than 1%. Buffalo manure should not be recommended to farmers as a major pond fertilizer.