Moran CN, Barwell ND, Malkova D, Cleland SJ, McPhee I, Packard CJ, Zammit VA & Gill JMR (2011) Effects of Diabetes Family History and Exercise Training on the expression of Adiponectin and Leptin and their Receptors. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 60 (2), pp. 206-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2009.12.026
Daughters of diabetes patients have lower insulin sensitivity than women with no diabetes family history, but increase insulin sensitivity to a greater extent with exercise training. This study aimed to determine whether differences in circulating concentrations of adiponectin and leptin, and adipose tissue expression of their genes and receptors played a role. Women offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 34; age, 35.6 ± 7.0 years; body mass index, 28.1 ± 5.1 kg/m2) and matched controls with no diabetes family history (n = 36; age, 33.6 ± 6.1 years; body mass index, 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2) participated. Blood and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and after a controlled 7-week endurance-type exercise intervention (sessions were performed at 65%-80% of maximum heart rate). At baseline, no significant differences were observed between groups in circulating leptin or adiponectin concentrations, or expression of their genes or receptors. In response to exercise, plasma leptin decreased more in offspring than controls (-32.2% vs -7.3%, P = .005 for interaction); and the long isoform of the leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) increased significantly only in the offspring (+39.4%, P = .026 vs +7.7%, P = .892). Leptin mRNA decreased similarly in both groups (-24.7% vs -25.0%, P less than .05 for both). Furthermore, changes in plasma leptin (r = -0.432, P less than .001) and leptin mRNA (r = -0.298, P = .019) correlated significantly with changes in insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin decreased similarly in both groups (-12.1% vs -15.2%, P less than .01 for both), but no significant changes were observed in adiponectin-related gene expression. This work shows that exercise training has differing effects on leptin-related variables between women with and without a diabetes family history and suggests that these molecular differences may contribute to the differential effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity between these 2 groups.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental: Volume 60, Issue 2