Effects of salinity on the growth and lipid composition of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) cells in culture


Tocher DR, Castell JD, Dick JR & Sargent JR (1994) Effects of salinity on the growth and lipid composition of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) cells in culture. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 13 (6), pp. 451-461.

The direct effects of osmotic pressure (salinity) on growth performance and lipid composition were investigated in fish cells in culture. Cell lines from a relatively stenohaline marine species, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) (TF) and an anadromous species, Atlantic salmon (AS) were cultured in media supplemented with NaCl to produce osmotic pressures varying from 300 to 500 mOsm kg−1. The growth rates of the two cell lines were affected in a similar manner by the salinity of the media with the rank order for both peak cell numbers and growth rates up to the day of peak cell number being 300 > 350 > 400 > 450 > 500 mOsm kg−1. Cell death occurred in both cell lines in older cultures at all salinities with the greatest loss of viable cells in media of 300 and 350 kg−1. However, there were quantitative and qualitative differences between the cell lines in their lipid metabolism in response to the salinity of the media. The lipid content expressed per cell showed a positive correlation between lipid per cell and salinity in TF cells, but this was less apparent in AS cells. The percentage of total polar lipid classes increased with increasing salinity in TF cells due mainly to graded increases in the percentages of choline phospholipids. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the proportions of polar and neutral lipid classes with salinity in AS cells. The only significant effect of salinity in AS cells was a decreased proportion of dimethylacetals in total lipid at the highest salinity. The same significant effect of salinity on dimethylacetal content of total lipid was observed in TF cells. However, in addition there was a graded decrease in the percentage of 18:2n-9 in TF cell total lipid with increasing salinity. This was accompanied by increased percentages of total n-3 and n-6 PUFA with higher proportions of both groups of PUFA at 450 and 500 compared with 300 mOsm kg−1. The results show that environmental salinity, in the absence of hormonal or other physiological stimuli, has direct effects on the growth and lipid metabolism of fish cells and that these effects differ in cells from different fish species.


Fish Physiology and Biochemistry: Volume 13, Issue 6

Publication date31/12/1994