Bell JG, Tocher DR, Farndale BM & Sargent JR (1998) Growth, mortality, tissue histopathology and fatty acid compositions, eicosanoid production and response to stress, in juvenile turbot fed diets rich in gamma-linolenic acid in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 58 (5), pp. 353-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-3278%2898%2990071-0
Three diets containing either borage oil (BO) and southern hemisphere fish oil Marinol (MO), or BO and tuna orbital oil (TO), or a northern hemisphere fish oil (FO) were fed to duplicate groups of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) of initial mean weight 1.2 g for a period of 12 weeks. The BO/MO and BO/TO diets were enriched in γ-linolenic (18:3n-6, GLA) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) acids, and GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), respectively. No differences were observed in final weights or growth rates, either between duplicate tanks or between dietary treatments. Half of the FO-fed fish sampled showed a histopathological lesion indicative of lipoid liver degeneration while the other treatments only showed a slight incidence of the same pathology. The fatty acid compositions of carcass and tissues broadly reflected the dietary input. In general, fish fed the BO/MO diet had increased levels of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3, but a lower level of 22:6n-3, compared to fish fed FO. In fish fed the BO/TO diet, levels of 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 were increased while levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 were reduced, compared to fish fed FO. Concentrations of thromboxanes B (TXB) and leukotrienes B (LTB), derived from 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3, were measured in plasma and stimulated blood cells. Levels of TXB2 were greatest in fish fed the BO/TO diet compared to both other treatments, while LTB4 was decreased in fish fed the BO/MO diet compared to both other treatments. In a stress test which involved anaesthesia followed by measurement of recovery times, fish fed the BO/MO diet had significantly lower recovery times compared to fish fed the FO diet.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids: Volume 58, Issue 5