Bell JG, McEvoy J, Tocher DR, McGhee F, Campbell P & Sargent JR (2001) Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid compositions and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism. Journal of Nutrition, 131 (5), pp. 1535-1543. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/5/1535.abstract
Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed five practical-type diets in which the added lipid was 100% fish oil [FO; 0% rapeseed oil (0% RO)], 90% FO + 10% RO (10% RO), 75% FO + 25% RO (25% RO), 50% FO + 50% RO (50% RO) or 100% RO, for a period of 17 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart, muscle or kidney. The greatest accumulation of muscle lipid was in fish fed 0% RO, which corresponded to significantly lower muscle protein in this group. The highest lipid levels in liver were found in fish fed 100% RO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle lipid correlated with RO inclusion in that the proportions of 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3) all increased with increasing dietary RO (r = 0.98–1.00, P less than 0.013). The concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] in muscle lipid were significantly reduced (P less than 0.05), along with total saturated fatty acids, with increasing dietary RO. Diet-induced changes in liver fatty acid compositions were broadly similar to those in muscle. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities, measured using [1-14C] 18:3(n-3), were increased with increasing dietary RO. Limited supplies of marine fish oils require that substitutes be found if growth in aquaculture is to be maintained such that fish health and product quality are not compromised. Thus, RO can be used successfully as a substitute for fish oil in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water although at levels of RO greater than 50% of dietary lipid, substantial reductions occur in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3)/(n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio, which will result in reduced availability of the (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids that are beneficial for human health.
Atlantic salmon; rapeseed; canola; polyunsaturated fatty acid
Journal of Nutrition: Volume 131, Issue 5