Motivation in Masters sport: Achievement and social goals


Hodge KP, Allen J & Smellie L (2008) Motivation in Masters sport: Achievement and social goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (2), pp. 157-176.

Objective - This study examined the collective relationships amongst achievement goals, social goals and motivational correlates in Masters sport. Method - The participants were 373 (184 females; 189 males) Masters athletes from six sports. Ages ranged from 29 years to 77 years (mean=48 years). Cluster analysis was employed to identify 'goal profiles' of two achievement goals (task and ego) and three social goals (affiliation, recognition, status). MANOVA was employed to examine the goal profiles for differences on self-perceptions, affect, and motivation. Results - Five goal profiles were identified and labeled as follows: Cluster 1 (Lo-Aff) low affiliation, moderate task, ego, status, and recognition; Cluster 2 (Lo-Val) low ego, status, and recognition, moderate task and affiliation; Cluster 3 (Hi-Social) high affiliation and status, moderate recognition and task, and low ego; Cluster 4 (Lo-Ach) low task and ego, moderate affiliation, status, and recognition; and Cluster 5 (Hi-Ach) high task, ego, and recognition, moderate affiliation and status. MANOVA revealed that Cluster 3 (Hi-Social) was highest on enjoyment and perceived belonging, while Clusters 3 and 5 (Hi-Ach) were highest on intrinsic motivation, commitment, and perceived ability. Clusters 1 (Lo-Aff) and 4 (Lo-Ach) had lower levels of enjoyment and commitment. Conclusion - In general, these Masters athletes enjoyed their participation, they were committed, they had high perceptions of ability and belonging, and they were predominantly intrinsically motivated. The implications of these motivational profiles for Masters athletes are discussed from both theoretical and applied perspectives.

Motivation; Goal orientations; Self-determination theory; Cluster analysis; Masters sport

Psychology of Sport and Exercise: Volume 9, Issue 2

Publication date31/03/2008