The perceived belonging in sport scale: Examining validity


Allen J (2006) The perceived belonging in sport scale: Examining validity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7 (4), pp. 387-405.

Objectives - The purpose of this research was to examine the construct validity, specifically factorial validity, convergent, and discriminant validity of the perceived belonging in sport scale (PBS) (Allen, J.B. (2003). Social motivation in youth sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(4), 551–567.). Design - Opportunities to develop and maintain connections with others are common in sport and frequently sought out by participants. However, little is known about the role of perceptions of these social connections (belonging) in sport. This is, in part, due to the lack of adequate measurement tools. Therefore, this research used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the PBS. Methods - The participants were tertiary-level students (N=259) who completed a questionnaire which included the perceived belonging in sport scale (PBS) and measures of satisfaction with social outcomes, social cohesion, intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation. Confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and Cronbach's alphas were employed to examine scale validity and reliability. Results - Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence to support the construct validity, including gender invariance, of a modified version of the PBS. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated through correlations with variables that were consistent with theoretical predictions. Conclusions - The PBS adequately reflects the central features of belonging in sport. The implications of the findings and the measure for future research are discussed.

Social motivation; Perceived belonging; Relatedness; Measurement

Psychology of Sport and Exercise: Volume 7, Issue 4

Publication date31/07/2006