Citation Taylor J, Leclercq E, Preston AC, Guy DR & Migaud H (2011) Parr-smolt transformation in out-of-season triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 362-363, pp. 255-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.12.028
Abstract Production of sterile triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) would appear to be the best strategy to address the growing concerns on environmental impacts of escapees. However, the industry relies on a year round supply of smolts to ensure continual production and to date the production of out-of-season (S0+) triploid smolts has not been reported. The present study demonstrates that S0+ triploid smolts can be produced using an accelerated "square-wave" photoperiod (LL-LD 9.5:14.5-LL) under ambient water temperature. Such a regime advanced the timing of smoltification by 3 months (S0+) relative to their siblings under an ambient photoperiod (S1+) as observed through body silvering, fin darkening, decrease in condition and significantly increased gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Importantly, triploid S0+ fish smolted 4 weeks earlier than their diploid siblings. In S1+ populations, no difference in smolt time was observed although triploid fish also achieved a higher weight. Furthermore, deformity prevalence was very low during the fresh (≤ 5%) and seawater (≤ 2.5%) stages within both ploidies mainly represented by spinal deformity and operculum shortening. Family effects for growth and condition were clear, however, no significant family/ploidy interactions were observed although this was based on only two full-sib crosses. These results are promising but there is still a long way to go before triploid can become a commercial reality. Further studies are required to optimize and refine husbandry protocols, define breeding strategies especially regarding family selection and overall better understand triploid salmon physiology.