Citation Vick S & Anderson J (2000) Learning and limits of use of eye gaze by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in an object-choice task. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114 (2), pp. 200-207. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.114.2.200
Abstract The ability of 3 capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella) to use experimenter-given cues to solve an object-choice task was assessed. The monkeys learned to use explicit gestural and postural cues and then progressed to using eye-gaze-only cues to solve the task, that is, to choose the baited 1 of 2 objects and thus obtain a food reward. Increasing cue-stimulus distance and introducing movement of the eyes impeded the establishment of effective eye-gaze reading. One monkey showed positive but imperfect transfer of use of eye gaze when a novel experimenter presented the cue. When head and eye orientation cues were presented simultaneously and in conflict, the monkeys showed greater responsiveness to head orientation cues. The results show that capuchin monkeys can learn to use eye gaze as a discriminative cue, but there was no evidence for any underlying awareness of eye gaze as a cue to direction of attention.
Journal Journal of Comparative Psychology: Volume 114, Issue 2