Citation Bracciali A, Brunelli M, Cataldo E & Degano P (2008) Stochastic models for the in silico simulation of synaptic processes. BMC Bioinformatics, 9 (Supplement 4), p. S7. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/9/S4/S7; https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-S4-S7
Abstract Background: Research in life sciences is benefiting from a large availability of formal description techniques and analysis methodologies. These allow both the phenomena investigated to be precisely modeled and virtual experiments to be performed in silico. Such experiments may result in easier, faster, and satisfying approximations of their in vitro/vivo counterparts. A promising approach is represented by the study of biological phenomena as a collection of interactive entities through process calculi equipped with stochastic semantics. These exploit formal grounds developed in the theory of concurrency in computer science, account for the not continuous, nor discrete, nature of many phenomena, enjoy nice compositional properties and allow for simulations that have been demonstrated to be coherent with data in literature.
Results: Motivated by the need to address some aspects of the functioning of neural synapses, we have developed one such model for synaptic processes in the calyx of Held, which is a glutamatergic synapse in the auditory pathway of the mammalia. We have developed such a stochastic model starting from existing kinetic models based on ODEs of some sub-components of the synapse, integrating other data from literature and making some assumptions about non-fully understood processes. Experiments have confirmed the coherence of our model with known biological data, also validating the assumptions made. Our model overcomes some limitations of the kinetic ones and, to our knowledge, represents the first model of synaptic processes based on process calculi. The compositionality of the approach has permitted us to independently focus on tuning the models of the pre- and post- synaptic traits, and then to naturally connect them, by dealing with "interface" issues. Furthermore, we have improved the expressiveness of the model, e.g. by embedding easy control of element concentration time courses. Sensitivity analysis over several parameters of the model has provided results that may help clarify the dynamics of synaptic transmission, while experiments with the model of the complete synapse seem worth explaining short-term plasticity mechanisms.
Conclusions: Specific presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms can be further analysed under various conditions, for instance by studying the presynaptic behaviour under repeated activations. The level of details of the description can be refined, for instance by further specifying the neurotransmitter generation and release steps. Taking advantage of the compositionality of the approach, an enhanced model could then be composed with other neural models, designed within the same framework, in order to obtain a more detailed and comprehensive model. In the long term, we are interested, in particular, in addressing models of synaptic plasticity, i.e. activity dependent mechanisms, which are the bases of memory and learning processes. More on the computer science side, we plan to follow some directions to improve the underlying computational model and the linguistic primitives it provides as suggested by the experiments carried out, e.g. by introducing a suitable notion of (spatial) locality.