Hancock PJB, Frowd CD, Brodie E & Niven C (2005) Recognition of pain expressions. In: Cangelosi A, Bugmann G & Borisyuk R (eds.) Modeling Language, Cognition and Action. Progress in Neural Processing, 16. Ninth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop, Plymouth, 08.09.2004-10.09.2004. Singapore: World Scientific, pp. 339-348.
Abstract The automatic recognition of facial expressions of pain has potential medical significance: some patients are unable or unwilling to ask for analgesia, but it has been rather little studied. We report some preliminary work. The expressions were produced by actors. Human participants were able to distinguish the expressions intended to be pain from others with an average accuracy of around 80%, with disgust the most difficult to distinguish. A simple computer model consisting of a Gabor filtering front end and a linear discriminator network performed similarly well, suggesting that quite a simple model is able to emulate human performance.