Norambuena F, Morais S, Estevez A, Bell JG, Tocher DR, Navarro JC, Cerda J & Duncan N (2013) Dietary modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in senegalese sole (Solea Sengalensis) broodstock reared in captivity. Aquaculture, 372-375, pp. 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.10.035
Previous studies have shown higher levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) in testis, liver, and muscle of wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) compared to fish reared in captivity (first generation, G1). The present study was conducted to establish the optimal level of dietary ARA for G1 Senegalese sole broodstock, using as a reference the fatty acid profile of wild broodstock (gonads, liver and muscle). A total of 120 Senegalese sole broodstock were randomly distributed into 12 tanks (1:1 male and female) and fed in duplicate with six experimental diets containing increasing amounts of ARA (0.7%, 1.6%, 2.3%, 3.2%, 5.0%, and 6.0 % of total fatty acids) for 9months. The relative ARA levels in liver, muscle and male and female gonads at the end of the feeding period increased in a dose dependent manner. Dietary ARA was mainly incorporated and stored in testis or ovary, followed by liver and muscle. Fish fed 2.3% and 3.2% ARA showed no differences in the ARA content of testis, ovary and liver when compared to wild fish. In male fish, a significant increase in the levels of 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 fatty acids was also observed, which was consistent with the up-regulation of fatty acyl elongase (elovl5) and desaturase (d4fad) transcript levels in the liver of fish fed 0.7%, 2.3% and 6% ARA. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of 3.2% ARA during periods shorter than 9months, or of 2.3% ARA for prolonged periods, can maintain optimal levels of tissue ARA in captive Senegalese sole broodstock. In addition, the data indicate that male Senegalese sole is able to elongate and desaturate ARA to 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-6, suggesting that these fatty acids may be important for male reproduction.
Aquaculture: Volume 372-375