Citation Arora M, Chen L, Paglia M, Gallagher IJ, Allen JE, Vyas YM, Ray A & Ray P (2006) Simvastatin promotes Th2-type responses through the induction of the chitinase family member Ym1 in dendritic cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (20), pp. 7777-7782. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0508492103
Abstract Statins, best known for their lipid-lowering actions, also possess immunomodulatory properties. Recent studies have shown a Th2-biasing effect of statins, although the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we investigated whether simvastatin can exercise a Th2-promoting effect through modulation of function of dendritic cells (DCs) without direct interaction with CD4+ T cells. Exposure of DCs to simvastatin induced the differentiation of a distinct subset of DCs characterized by a high expression of B220. These simvastatin-conditioned DCs up-regulated GATA-3 expression and down-regulated T-bet expression in cocultured CD4+ T cells in the absence of additional simvastatin added to the coculture. The Th2-biased transcription factor profile induced by simvastatin-treated DCs also was accompanied by increased Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and decreased Th1 (IFN-gamma) cytokine secretion from the T cells. The Th2-promoting effect of simvastatin was found to depend on the chitinase family member Ym1, known to be a lectin. Anti-Ym1 antibody abolished the Th2-promoting effect of simvastatin-treated DCs. Also, simvastatin was unable to augment Ym1 expression in DCs developed from STAT6-/- or IL-4R alpha-/- mice. Thus, modulation of Ym1 production by DCs identifies a previously undescribed mechanism of Th2 polarization by statin.
Keywords statin; T cells; IL-4Rα; STAT6; GATA-3
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Volume 103, Issue 20