Kuipers JR & La Heij W (2012) Congruency effects in conceptualizing for speech. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65 (11), pp. 2155-2168. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2012.684693
In naming a picture at the basic level, a semantically related distractor word induces interference in comparison to an unrelated word. When the task is changed from basic-level naming to categorization, however, this effect reverses to semantic facilitation. In previous studies, this semantic facilitation effect was attributed to "message congruency" at the conceptual level. The present study examines the nature of this message congruency effect: Is it due to competition between two activated category concepts in the incongruent condition or is it due to convergence of activity on a single category concept in the congruent condition? Two experiments show that neither the strength with which the context stimulus activates an incongruent category concept nor the semantic distance between the category concepts activated by target and distractor affect target categorization speed. We conclude that the message congruency effect is most likely due to convergence on a single category concept in the category-congruent condition.
Conceptual preparation; Word production; Context effects; Congruency; Word categorization
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Volume 65, Issue 11